Pa element of Pseudopolygnathus martenburgensis trigonicus, from here.

Belongs within: Spathognathodontidae.
Contains: Polygnathus, Ctenopolygnathus.

The Polygnathidae are a group of conodonts known from the Early Devonian to the Early Carboniferous, with an apparatus including carminate pectiniform elements with a straight or more or less curved platform and a free anterior blade (Bardashev et al. 2002, for Polygnathidae + Eognathodidae + Eopolygnathidae). In the late Devonian Ancyrognathus, the platform elements bore an anteroposterior keel from with a series of distinct nodes extended across the anterior lobe of the element, overall creating the appearance of a raised Y that was matched by keels on the ventral surface (Sweet 1988).

Polygnathidae [Polygnathinae]
    |--Rhodalepis Druce 1969 BWZ02
    |--Ancyrolepis Ziegler 1959 BWZ02
    |    `--*A. cruciformis Ziegler 1959 M62
    |--Polylophodonta Branson & Mehl 1934 BWZ02
    |    `--P. confluens (Ulrich & Bassler 1926) (see below for synonymy) H62
    |--Scaphignathus Helms 1959 BWZ02
    |    `--*S. velifera Ziegler 1960 M62
    |--Gnathodella Matern 1933 H62
    |    `--*G. angulata Matern 1933 H62
    |--Schmidtognathus Ziegler 1966 BWZ02
    |    |--S. hermanni N79
    |    `--S. wittekindti S88
    |--Ambalodus Branson & Mehl 1933 H62
    |    |--*A. triangularis Branson & Mehl 1933 H62
    |    `--A. galerus S88
    |--Avignathus Lys & Serre 1957 D02
    |    |--A. decorosus (Stauffer 1938) (see below for synonymy) D02
    |    `--A. bifurcatus Dzik 2002 D02
    |--Nothognathella Branson & Mehl 1934 H62
    |    |--*N. typicalis Branson & Mehl 1934 H62
    |    `--N. sublaevis Sannemann 1955 KU04
    |--Panderodella Bassler 1925 H62
    |    |--*P. truncata Bassler 1925 H62
    |    `--P. gracilis H62
    |--Nicollidina Dzik 2002 D02
    |    |--*N. brevis (Bischoff & Ziegler 1957) [=Spathognathodus brevis] D02
    |    |--N. postera (Klapper & Lane 1985) D02
    |    `--N. raaschi (Klapper & Barrick 1983) D02
    |--Mehlina Youngquist 1945 D02, H62
    |    |--M. irregularis Youngquist 1945 [incl. M. gradatus Youngquist 1945] D02
    |    |--M. semialternans ((Wirth 1967) D01 [=Ozarkodina semialternans S88]
    |    |--M. strigosa S88
    |    `--M. unica Klapper, Uyeno et al. 2004 KU04
    |--Tortodus Weddige 1977 D02
    |    |--*T. kockelianus (Bischoff & Ziegler 1957) D02
    |    |    |--T. k. kockelianus S88
    |    |    `--T. k. australis S88
    |    |--T. intermedius S88
    |    `--T. treptus (Ziegler 1958) D02
    |--Ancyrognathus Branson & Mehl 1934 BWZ02 [incl. Ancyroides Miller & Youngquist 1947 H62]
    |    |--*A. symmetrica Branson & Mehl 1934 H62
    |    |--A. ancyrognathoideus (Ziegler 1958) KU04
    |    |--A. asymmetricus (Ulrich & Bassler 1926) D02
    |    |--A. bifurcatus (Ulrich & Bassler 1926) KU04
    |    |--A. calvini (Miller & Youngquist 1947) KU04
    |    |--A. cryptus S88
    |    |--A. iowaensis Youngquist 1947 KU04
    |    |--A. sinelaminus (Branson & Mehl 1934) KU04
    |    |--A. triangularis Youngquist 1945 KU04
    |    `--A. ubiquitus Sandberg et al. 1988 D02
    |--Siphonodella Branson & Mehl 1944 BWZ02 [=Siphonognathus Branson & Mehl 1934 non Richardson 1858 H62]
    |    |--S. praesulcata S88
    |    `--+--*S. duplicata (Branson & Mehl 1934) H62, S88, H62 [=*Siphonognathus duplicata H62]
    |       |--S. carinthiaca S88
    |       |--S. cooperi S88
    |       |--S. isosticha S88
    |       |--S. lobata S88
    |       |--S. sulcata S88
    |       |--+--S. crenulata S88
    |       |  `--S. quadruplicata S88
    |       `--+--S. obsoleta S88
    |          `--S. sandbergi S88
    |--Pseudopolygnathus Branson & Mehl 1934 BWZ02
    |    |--*P. prima Branson & Mehl 1934 H62
    |    |--P. dentilineatus S88
    |    |--P. fusiformis S88
    |    |--P. lobatus S88
    |    |--P. marginatus S88
    |    |--P. martenburgensis S88
    |    |    |--P. m. martenburgensis S88
    |    |    `--P. m. trigonicus S88
    |    |--P. multistriatus S88
    |    |--P. nudus S88
    |    |--P. oxypageus S88
    |    |--P. radinus S88
    |    `--P. triangulus S88
    `--Gondwania Bardashev, Weddige & Ziegler 2002 [Eognathodidae, Eopolygnathidae] BWZ02
         |--G. irregularis (Druce 1975) (see below for synonymy) BWZ02
         |--+--G. drucei Bardashev, Weddige & Ziegler 2002 BWZ02
         |  `--+--G. juliae (Lane & Ormiston 1979) [=Eognathodus sulcatus juliae] BWZ02
         |     `--+--‘Eognathodus’ secus Philip 1965 [=E. sulcatus secus] BWZ02
         |        `--+--‘Spathognathodus’ trilinearis Cooper 1973 (see below for synonymy) BWZ02
         |           `--Polygnathus BWZ02
         `--+--G. grahami Bardashev, Weddige & Ziegler 2002 BWZ02
            `--+--*G. nevadensis (Clark & Ethington 1966) [=Spathognathodus bipennatus nevadensis] BWZ02
               `--Eognathodus Philip 1965 BWZ02
                    |  i. s.: E. bipennatus V03
                    |--*E. sulcatus Philip 1965 [=Spathognathodus sulcatus] BWZ02
                    `--+--E. zeravshanicus Bardashev & Ziegler 1992 (see below for synonymy) BWZ02
                       `--+--Ctenopolygnathus BWZ02
                          `--Parapolygnathus Klapper & Philip 1971 D02
                               |--*P. angusticostatus (Wittekindt 1966) D02 (see below for synonymy)
                               |--P. brevis (Miller & Youngquist 1947) D02
                               `--P. linguiformis (Hinde 1879) D02

Avignathus decorosus (Stauffer 1938) [=Polygnathus decorosus; incl. *A. beckmanni Lys & Serre in Lys et al. 1957] D02

Eognathodus zeravshanicus Bardashev & Ziegler 1992 [=E. trilinearis zeravshanicus, Polygnathus zeravshanicus] BWZ02

Gondwania irregularis (Druce 1975) [=Eognathodus irregularis; incl. Eognathodus sulcatus eosulcatus Murphy 1989] BWZ02

*Parapolygnathus angusticostatus (Wittekindt 1966) D02 [=Polygnathus angusticostatus D02, Ctenopolygnathus angusticostatus BWZ02]

Polylophodonta confluens (Ulrich & Bassler 1926) [=Polygnathus confluens; incl. Polygnathus gyratilineata Holmes 1928, *Polylophodonta gyratilineata] H62

‘Spathognathodus’ trilinearis Cooper 1973 [=Eognathodus trilinearis, Polygnathus trilinearis] BWZ02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BWZ02] Bardashev, I. A., K. Weddige & W. Ziegler. 2002. The phylomorphogenesis of some Early Devonian platform conodonts. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 82: 375–451.

[D01] Donoghue, P. C. J. 2001. Conodonts meet cladistics: recovering relationships and assessing the completeness of the conodont fossil record. Palaeontology 44 (1): 65–93.

[D02] Dzik, J. 2002. Emergence and collapse of the Frasnian conodont and ammonoid communities in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 565–650.

[H62] Hass, W. H. 1962. Conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W3–W69. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[KU04] Klapper, G., T. T. Uyeno, D. K. Armstrong & P. G. Telford. 2004. Conodonts of the Williams Island and Long Rapids Formations (Upper Devonian, Frasnian–Famennian) of the Onakawana B Drillhole, Moose River Basin, northern Ontario, with a revision of the Lower Famennian species. Journal of Paleontology 78: 371–387.

[M62] Müller, K. J. 1962. Supplement to systematics of conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W246–W249. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[S88] Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: Morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long extinct animal phylum. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[V03] Valiukevičius, J. 2003. Devonian acanthodians from Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago (Russia). Geodiversitas 25: 131–204.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS