Nereis pelagica, copyright Alexander Semenov.

Belongs within: Phyllodocida.

The Nereididae, ragworms, are a mostly marine group of often large polychaete worms with well-developed jaws.

Characters (from Howell 1962): Body long, many-segmented; two large jaws and often paragnaths in eight groups; first two pairs of parapodia simple, others double; dorsal and ventral cirri present; bristles with sickle-shaped ends; two anal cirri.

    |--+--Ceratocephale loveni Malmgren 1867 RP07
    |  `--Ceratonereis RP07
    |       |--C. costae (Grube 1840) [=Nereis (Ceratonereis) costae] ECE00
    |       |--C. hircinicola (Eisig 1870) [=Nereis (Ceratonereis) hircinicola] ECE00
    |       `--C. longiceratophora Hartmann-Schröder 1985 RP07
    `--Nereis Linnaeus 1758 RP07, H62
         |--*N. noctiluca Linnaeus 1758 H62
         |--N. caerulea Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--N. ehlersiana Grube 1878 ECE00
         |--N. falsa Quatrefages 1865 ECE00
         |--N. fucata BBB-S95
         |--N. gigantea Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--N. lacustris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--N. pelagica Linnaeus 1758 RP07
         |--N. rava Ehlers 1868 ECE00
         |--N. vexillosa Grube 1851 SS07
         |--N. virens (Sars 1835) SS07
         `--N. zonata Malmgren 1867 ECE00

Nereididae incertae sedis:
  Namanereis Chamberlin 1919 [Namanereidinae] H-S86
    |--N. beroni Hartmann-Schröder & Marinov 1977 H-S86
    |--N. hummelincki (Augener 1933) H-S86
    `--N. pontica (Bobretzky 1872) H-S86
  Alitta succinea (Leuckart 1847) HJ08 (see below for synonymy)
  Platynereis SS07
    |--P. australis HS01
    |--P. coccinea (Delle Chiaje 1841) ECE00
    |--P. dumerilii (Audouin & Edwards 1833) ECE00
    `--P. megalops MH96
  Paleonereites Stauffer 1933 H62
    `--*P. cervicornis Stauffer 1933 H62
  Paranereites Eisenack 1939 H62
    `--*P. balticus Eisenack 1939 H62
  Pronereites Stauffer 1933 H62
    `--*P. primus Stauffer 1933 H62
  Triadonereis Mayer 1954 H62
    `--*T. eckerti Mayer 1954 H62
  Ungulites Stauffer 1933 H62
    `--*U. bicuspidatus Stauffer 1933 H62
  Micronereis variegata Claparède 1863 ECE00
  Lycastopsis pontica (Bobretzky 1872) ECE00
  Websterinereis glauca (Claparède 1870) [=Laeonereis glauca, Leptonereis glauca] ECE00
  Hediste diversicolor (Müller 1776) [=Nereis diversicolor] ECE00
  Neanthes Kinberg 1865 ECE00, Z01
    |--N. arenaceodentata CCG01
    |--N. caudata (Delle Chiaje 1888) [=Nereis caudata] ECE00
    |--N. diversicolor ZHT01
    `--N. irrorata (Malmgren 1867) [=Nereis irrorata] ECE00
  Perinereis ECE00
    |--P. camiguinoides HS01
    |--P. cultrifera (Grube 1840) ECE00
    |--P. marionii BBB-S95
    |--P. nuntia [incl. P. nuntia f. brevicirrus] HS01
    `--P. oliveirae BBB-S95
  Eunereis longissima (Johnston 1840) ECE00
  Pseudonereis anomala Gravier 1902 ECE00
  Fossundecima konecniorum PTV14
  Ctenoscolex Ehlers 1869 H62
    `--*C. procerus Ehlers 1869 H62
  Dinoscolites Stauffer 1933 H62
    `--*D. mirabilis Stauffer 1933 H62
  Nawnites Roy 1929 H62
    `--*N. gilboensis Roy 1929 H62
  Nereidavus Grinnell 1877 H62
    `--*N. varians Grinnell 1877 H62

Alitta succinea (Leuckart 1847) HJ08 [=Neanthes succinea HJ08, Nereis succinea ECE00; incl. Neanthes oxypoda Marenzeller 1879 HJ08, Nereis oxypoda HJ08]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[CCG01] Canivet, V., P. Chambon & J. Gibert. 2001. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of arsenic and chromium in epigean and hypogean freshwater macroinvertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40: 345–354.

[ECE00] Ergen, Z., M. E. Çinar & G. Ergen. 2000. On the Nereididae (Polychaeta: Annelida) fauna of the Bay of İzmir. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 139–158.

[H-S86] Hartmann-Schröder, G. 1986. Polychaeta (incl. Archiannelida). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 210–233. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[PTV14] Parry, L., A. Tanner & J. Vinther. 2014. The origin of annelids. Palaeontology 57 (6): 1091–1103.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

[Z01] Zompro, O. 2001. A review of Eurycanthinae: Eurycanthini, with a key to genera, notes on the subfamily and designation of type species. Phasmid Studies 10 (1): 19–23.

[ZHT01] Zrzavý, J., V. Hypša & D. F. Tietz. 2001. Myzostomida are not annelids: Molecular and morphological support for a clade of animals with anterior sperm flagella. Cladistics 17: 170–198.

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