Reconstruction of Pentacrinites, by Nobu Tamura.

Belongs within: Dendrocrinida.
Contains: Ampelocrinidae, Corythocrinidae, Millericrinida, Hyocrinidae, Cyrtocrinina, Holopodina, Roveacrinidae, Bathycrinidae, Isocrinidae, Comatulida.

The Articulata are a group of crinoids with a flexible tegmen known from the Lower Triassic to the present, including all living members of the crinoids (Wienberg Rasmussen 1978).

Characters (from Wienberg Rasmussen 1978): Cup dicyclic or cryptodicyclic, usually with five infrabasals, five basals and five radials. Infrabasals rarely distinct and exposed on surface of cup, more commonly small and concealed or missing, at least in adults. Basals generally small; may be strongly reduced or missing. No anal plates or compound radials and normally no plates separating radials or basals in the postlarval skeleton. Arms uniserial. Articulations between radial and arm and between some or all brachials muscular and with distinct fulcral ridge. Radials and brachials perforated by nerve canal, passing through fulcral ridge of muscular and synaxthrial articulations. Arms generally divided at primibrachs 2, commonly further divided, with nonmuscular articulation at primibrachs 1 to 2. Arms generally free, proximal brachials may be movably connected by interbrachial plates. Tegmen flexible, with calcareous spicules or grains or with irregular pattern of thin plates. Mouth and ambulacral grooves open to exterior. Pinnules present, articulated to all or most brachials, pinnules not axillary or with nonmuscular distal articulation. Column (if present) circular, elliptical or five-sided in section, with or without cirri on nodals. Columnal articulations synarthrial, symplectial, cryptosymplectial or synostosial. Central canal narrow. Attachment by distall cirri, radix, or terminal disc.

Articulata [Astylida, Canaliculata, Libera, Liberidae, Neocrinoidea, Pinnata, Stomatocrinoidea]
    |  i. s.: Dolichocrinus de Loriol 1891 [=Tetanocrinus Jaekel 1891] WR78
    |           `--*D. aberrans (de Loriol 1882) [=Eugeniacrinus aberrans, *Tetanocrinus aberrans] WR78
    |         Acariaeocrinus Biese 1935 [=Microcrinus Terquem & Piette 1865 non Emmons 1858] WR78
    |           `--*A. liasinus (Terquem & Piette 1865) [=*Microcrinus liasinus] WR78
    |--Ampelocrinida WM03
    |    |--Ampelocrinidae WM03
    |    `--Corythocrinidae WM03
    |--Uintacrinida [Innatantes, Uintacrinacea] UL78
    |    |--Uintacrinus Grinnell 1876 [Uintacrinidae] WR78
    |    |    `--*U. socialis Grinnell 1876 [incl. U. westfalicus Schlüter 1878] WR78
    |    `--Marsupites d’Orbigny 1852 (see below for synonymy) WR78
    |         `--M. testudinarius (von Schlotheim 1820) (see below for synonymy) WR78
    |--Millericrinida [Apiocrinacea] UL78
    |    |--Millericrinina UL78
    |    `--+--Hyocrinidae UL78
    |       `--Cyrtocrinida [Coadunata, Compacta] UL78
    |            |--Cyrtocrinina WR78
    |            `--Holopodina WR78
    |--Roveacrinida YL78
    |    |--Roveacrinidae WR78
    |    `--Saccocomidae WR78
    |         |--Pseudosaccocoma Remeš 1905 [Pseudosaccocomidae, Pseudosaccocominae] WR78
    |         |    `--*P. strambergense Remeš 1905 WR78
    |         `--Saccocominae WR78
    |              |--Applinocrinus Peck 1973 WR78
    |              |    |--*A. cretacea (Bather 1924) [=Saccocoma cretacea] WR78
    |              |    `--A. texanus WR78
    |              `--Saccocoma Agassiz 1836 (see below for synonymy) WR78
    |                   |--‘Euryale’ bajeri Koenig 1825 (see below for synonymy) WR78
    |                   `--S. tenellum WR78 [=*Saccoma tenella J18]
    |--Bourgueticrinida [Bourgueticrinina] WR78
    |    |--Bathycrinidae WR78
    |    |--Phrynocrinidae WR78
    |    |    |--Phrynocrinus Clark 1907 WR78
    |    |    |    `--*P. nudus Clark 1907 WR78
    |    |    `--Zeuctocrinus Clark 1973 WR78
    |    |         `--*Z. gisleni Clark 1973 WR78
    |    |--Porphyrocrinidae WR78
    |    |    |--Porphyrocrinus Gislén 1925 WR78
    |    |    |    `--*P. verrucosus Gislén 1925 WR78
    |    |    `--Naumachocrinus Clark 1912 WR78
    |    |         `--*N. hawaiiensis Clark 1912 WR78
    |    `--Bourgueticrinus d’Orbigny 1841 (see below for synonymy) WR78
    |         |--*B. ellipticus (Miller 1821) [=Apiocrinites ellipticus] WR78
    |         |--B. cylindricus U78
    |         |--B. danicus WR78
    |         |--B. hagenowii WR78
    |         |--B. hureae WR78
    |         |--*Metapiocrinus’ minutus Jaekel 1918 WR78
    |         |--B. papilliformis U78
    |         `--*Mesocrinus’ suedicus Carpenter 1881 WR78
    `--Isocrinida [Isocrinina, Pentacrinacea] UL78
         |  i. s.: Proisocrinus Clark 1910 [Proisocrinidae] WR78
         |           `--*P. ruberrimus Clark 1910 WR78
         |--Isocrinidae UL78
         |--Holocrinidae UL78
         |    |--Moenocrinus Hildebrand 1926 WR78
         |    |    `--*M. deeckei Hildebrand 1926 WR78
         |    `--Holocrinus Wachsmuth & Springer 1886 WR78
         |         |--*H. beyrichi (Picard 1883) [=Encrinus beyrichi] WR78
         |         `--H. wagneri (Benecke 1887) WR78
         `--+--Comatulida UL78
            `--Pentacrinitidae [Pentacrinidae, Pentacrininae] UL78
                 |--Seirocrinus Gislén 1924 WR78
                 |    `--S. fasciculosus (von Schlotheim 1813) (see below for synonymy) WR78
                 `--Pentacrinites Blumenbach 1804 (see below for synonymy) WR78
                      |--*P. fossilis Blumenbach 1804 (see below for synonymy) WR78
                      |--‘Pentacrinus’ asteriscus Meek & Hayden 1864 W77
                      |--P. collenoti WR78
                      |--P. dargniesi WR78
                      |--‘Pentacrinus’ laevigatus WR78
                      |--P. sorlinensis UL78
                      |--P. tuberculatus A96
                      `--P. versistellatus UL78

Nomina nuda: Asteriatites pentagonatus von Schlotheim 1813 WR78
             Asteriatites spinosus von Schlotheim 1813 WR78

Bourgueticrinus d’Orbigny 1841 [incl. Mesocrinus Carpenter 1881, Metapiocrinus Jaekel 1918, Volvola Lhwyd ex Valette 1917; Bourgueticrinidae] WR78

‘Euryale’ bajeri Koenig 1825 [incl. Comatula pectinata filiformis Goldfuss 1831, Asteriatites filiformis, *Saccocoma pectinata filiformis, A. rosaceus] WR78

Marsupites d’Orbigny 1852 [=Marsupiocrinites de Blainville 1830; incl. Sitularia Cumberland 1826; Marsupitidae] WR78

Marsupites testudinarius (von Schlotheim 1820) [=Encrinites testudinarius; incl. M. americanus Springer 1911, M. laevigatus Forbes in Dixon 1850, M. lamberti Besairie 1936, M. milleri Mantell 1822, *M. ornatus Miller 1821, *Sitularia trianguliformis Cumberland 1826] WR78

Pentacrinites Blumenbach 1804 [=Pentacrinite (l. c.), Pentacrinus Miller 1821, Pentracinus (l. c.); incl. Extracrinus Austin & Austin 1847, Heterocrinus Fraas 1858 non Hall 1847] WR78

*Pentacrinites fossilis Blumenbach 1804 [=*Pentacrinus fossilis; incl. Pentacrinites briareus Miller 1821, *Extracrinus briareus, Pentacrinites britannicus von Schlotheim 1813] WR78

Saccocoma Agassiz 1836 [=Saccosoma (l.c.); incl. Asteriatites von Schlotheim 1813 (n. d.), Saccoma Jaekel 1918] WR78

Seirocrinus fasciculosus (von Schlotheim 1813) [=Pentacrinites fasciculosus; incl. Pentacrinites briaroides Quenstedt 1852, Pentacrinites colligatus Quenstedt 1852, Pentacrinus hiemeri Koenig 1825, Extracrinus lepidotus Austin & Austin 1847, Pentacrinites subangularis Miller 1821, *Seirocrinus subangularis] WR78

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A96] Ausich, W. I. 1996. Crinoid plate circlet homologies. Journal of Paleontology 70: 955–964.

[J18] Jaekel, O. 1918. Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 3: 1–128.

[U78] Ubaghs, G. 1978. Skeletal morphology of fossil crinoids. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 1 pp. T58–T216. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[UL78] Ubaghs, G., N. G. Lane, H. Wienberg Rasmussen & H. L. Strimple. 1978. Evolution. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 2 pp. T275–T316. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[WM03] Webster, G. D., C. G. Maples, R. Mawson & M. Dastanpour. 2003. A cladid-dominated Early Mississippian crinoid and conodont fauna from Kerman Province, Iran and revision of the glossocrinids and rhenocrinids. Journal of Paleontology 77 (Suppl. 3): 1–35.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[WR78] Wienberg Rasmussen, H. 1978. Articulata. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 3 pp. T813–T927. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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