Sa element of Oulodus panuarensis, from Institute of Geology at TUT.

Belongs within: Prioniodinida.
Contains: Ligonodininae, Bactrognathidae, Gondolellidae, Ellisoniidae.

The Prioniodinidae are a family of conodonts with sexi- or septimembrate apparatus including digyrate P and S elements. Taxa assigned to the Prioniodinidae are known from the Middle Ordovician to the end of the Carboniferous, though they also included the ancestors of the Gondolellidae and Ellisoniidae that survived into the Late Triassic (Sweet 1988).

Prioniodinidae [Neoprioniodontinae]
    |--Pristognathus Stone & Furnish 1959 S88, H62
    |    `--*P. bighornensis Stone & Furnish 1959 H62
    |--Erika Murphy & Matti 1982 S88
    |    `--E. divarica S88
    |--+--Apatognathus Branson & Mehl 1934 S88, H62
    |  |    `--*A. varians Branson & Mehl 1934 H62
    |  `--Prioniodina Bassler 1925 S88, H62 [incl. Prioniodella Bassler 1925 H62]
    |       |--*P. subcurvata Ulrich & Bassler 1926 H62
    |       |--‘Prioniodella’ anguinea RR79
    |       |--‘Prioniodella’ cteniforma RR79
    |       `--‘Prioniodella’ decrescens RR79
    |--Oulodus Branson & Mehl 1933 S88, H62
    |    |--*O. serratus (Stauffer 1930) [=Cordylodus serratus] SS05
    |    |--O. australis Bischoff 1986 M02
    |    |--O. mediocris Branson & Mehl 1933 H62
    |    |--O. nathani S88
    |    |--O. panuarensis Bischoff 1986 M02
    |    |--O. robustus S88
    |    |--O. ulrichi S88
    |    `--O. velicuspus SS05
    |--+--Bactrognathidae SD01
    |  `--+--Kladognathus Rexroad 1958 S88, H62 (see below for synonymy)
    |     |    |--*K. prima (Rexroad 1957) [=*Cladognathus prima] H62
    |     |    `--*Lambdagnathus’ fragilidens Rexroad 1958 H62
    |     `--+--Gondolellidae SD01
    |        |--Ellisoniidae SD01
    |        `--Idioprioniodus Gunnell 1933 S88, H62
    |             |--I. conjunctus S88
    |             |--I. healdi S88
    |             `--I. typus S88
    `--Hibbardellinae [Hibbardellidae] H62
         |--Diplododella Bassler 1925 H62
         |    `--*D. bilateralis Ulrich & Bassler 1926 H62
         |--Elsonella Youngquist 1945 H62
         |    `--*E. prima Youngquist 1945 H62
         |--Roundya Hass 1953 H62
         |    `--*R. barnettana Hass 1953 H62
         |--Tetraprioniodus Lindström 1954 [incl. Rosagnathus Rhodes 1955] H62
         |    `--*T. robustus Lindström 1954 H62
         `--Hibbardella Bassler 1925 S88, H62
              |--*H. angulata (Hinde 1879) [=Prioniodus angulatus] H62
              `--H. triassica H62

Prioniodinidae incertae sedis:
  Delotaxis Klapper & Philip 1971 D02
    `--*D. elegans (Walliser 1964) D02
  Dyminodina Dzik 2002 D02
    |--*D. planidentata Dzik 2002 D02
    |--D. anterodenticulata Dzik 2002 D02
    `--D. kovalensis Dzik 2002 D02
  Pluckidina Dzik 2002 D02
    |--*P. lagoviensis Dzik 2002 D02
    |--P. kielcensis Dzik 2002 D02
    |--P. lipperti (Bischoff 1956) D02
    |--P. nonaginta (Klapper et al. 1996) D02
    |--P. robustipegmata Dzik 2002 D02
    |--P. slupiensis Dzik 2002 D02
    `--P. tortoides (Sparling 1981) [=Prioniodina tortoides] D02
  Loxodus Furnish 1938 H62
    `--*L. bransoni Furnish 1938 H62
  Pachysomia Smith 1907 H62
    `--*P. wanlockensis Smith 1907 H62
  Subprioniodus Smith 1907 H62
    `--*S. paucidentatus Smith 1907 H62
  Ligonodininae D02
  Falodus Lindström 1954 H62
    `--*F. prodentatus (Graves & Ellison 1941) [=Oistodus prodentatus] H62
  Gyrognathus Stauffer 1935 H62
    `--*G. prima Stauffer 1935 H62
  Polygnathellus Bassler 1925 H62
    |--*P. typicalis Ulrich & Bassler 1926 H62
    `--P. curvatus Ulrich & Bassler 1926 KU04
  Metalonchodina Brandon & Mehl 1941 H62 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*M. bidentata (Gunnell 1931) R62 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Neoprioniodus’ alatus H62
    `--‘Neoprioniodus’ ligo H62
  Lonchodininae H62
    |--Lonchodina Bassler 1925 S88
    |    `--*L. typicalis Ulrich & Bassler 1926 H62
    `--Trichonodella Branson & Mehl 1948 (see below for synonymy) H62
         |--*T. prima (Branson & Mehl 1933) [=*Trichognathus prima] H62
         `--T. inconstans TC71

Kladognathus Rexroad 1958 S88, H62 [=Cladognathus Rexroad 1957 non Burmeister 1847 H62; incl. Lambdagnathus Rexroad 1958 S88, H62, Magnilaterella S88]

Metalonchodina Brandon & Mehl 1941 H62 [incl. Duboisella Rhodes 1952 R62, Neoprioniodus Rhodes & Müller 1956 R62]

*Metalonchodina bidentata (Gunnell 1931) R62 [=Prioniodus bidentatus H62; incl. Lonchodina clarki (Gunnell 1931) R62, P. conjunctus Gunnell 1931 H62, *Neoprioniodus conjunctus R62, Ligonodina typa (Gunnell 1933) R62, *Duboisella typica Rhodes 1952 R62]

Trichonodella Branson & Mehl 1948 [=Trichognathus Branson & Mehl 1933 nec Berthold 1827 nec Gemminger & Harold 1868] H62

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D02] Dzik, J. 2002. Emergence and collapse of the Frasnian conodont and ammonoid communities in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 565–650.

[H62] Hass, W. H. 1962. Conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W3–W69. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[KU04] Klapper, G., T. T. Uyeno, D. K. Armstrong & P. G. Telford. 2004. Conodonts of the Williams Island and Long Rapids Formations (Upper Devonian, Frasnian–Famennian) of the Onakawana B Drillhole, Moose River Basin, northern Ontario, with a revision of the Lower Famennian species. Journal of Paleontology 78: 371–387.

[M02] Männik, P. 2002. Conodonts in the Silurian of Severnaya Zemlya and Sedov archipelagos (Russia), with special reference to the genus Ozarkodina Branson & Mehl, 1933. Geodiversitas 24 (1): 77–97.

[R62] Rhodes, F. H. T. 1962. Recognition, interpretation, and taxonomic position of conodont assemblages. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W70–W83. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[RR79] Ross, C. A., & J. R. P. Ross. 1979. Permian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A291–A350. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[SS05] Sansom, I. J., & M. P. Smith. 2005. Late Ordovician vertebrates from the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming, USA. Palaeontology 48 (1): 31–48.

[S88] Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: Morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long extinct animal phylum. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[TC71] Thomson, K. S., & K. S. W. Campbell. 1971. The structure and relationships of the primitive Devonian lungfish—Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Etheridge). Yale University Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin 38: 1–109.

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