Termitinae

Soldiers of Pericapritermes, from Termite Web.


Belongs within: Rhinotermitidae.
Contains: Termes, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae, Microcerotermes, Amitermes.

The Termitinae are a group of termites possessing a 'mixed segment' in the intestine, with the mesenteron wall extending along one side of the gut. In many genera (the Amitermes group), the soldiers have elongate mandibles usually bearing a few large teeth. In the Termes-Capritermes group, soldiers' mandibles are rod-like and adapted for rapid snapping to strike rather than slash at enemies. Some genera, such as Invasitermes, Protohamitermes and Orientotermes, lack soldiers and either live in association with other termites or have defensive roles filled by the workers. Molecular phylogenies also indicate that the Termitinae are paraphyletic to the nasute termites of the Nasutitermitinae and Syntermitinae (Inward et al. 2007).

See also: Snap! goes the termite.

<==Termitinae [Amitermitinae]
    |--+--Euchilotermes IVE07
    |  |    |--E. tensus IVE07
    |  |    `--+--E. umbraticola IVE07
    |  |       `--+--Furculitermes winifredi IVE07
    |  |          `--+--Procubitermes arboricola IVE07
    |  |             `--Ophiotermes IVE07
    |  |                  |--O. grandilabius A50
    |  |                  `--O. ugandensis IVE07
    |  `--+--+--Apilitermes longiceps IVE07
    |     |  `--+--Crenetermes albotarsalis IVE07
    |     |     |--Thoracotermes IVE07
    |     |     |    |--T. brevinotus GN54
    |     |     |    `--T. macrothorax A50
    |     |     `--Cubitermes IVE07
    |     |          |--C. bilobatus A50
    |     |          |--C. bulbifrons N55
    |     |          |--C. exiguus N90
    |     |          |--C. fungifaber S57
    |     |          |--C. glebae S57
    |     |          |--C. intercalatus H79
    |     |          |--C. sankurensis S57
    |     |          |--C. severus N55
    |     |          `--C. subcrenulatus S57
    |     `--+--Orthotermes IVE07
    |        |    |--O. depressifrons IVE07
    |        |    `--O. mansuetus A50
    |        `--+--Fastigitermes jucundus IVE07
    |           |--Proboscitermes tubuliferus IVE07, GE05
    |           |--Basidentitermes IVE07
    |           |    |--B. aurivillii A50
    |           |    |--B. mactus IVE07
    |           |    `--B. trilobatus Noirot 1955 N55
    |           `--+--Lepidotermes pretoriensis A50
    |              `--+--Unguitermes IVE07
    |                 |    |--U. acutifrons IVE07
    |                 |    |--U. bidentatus A50
    |                 |    `--U. trispinosus IVE07
    |                 `--Noditermes A50
    |                      |--N. cristifrons S57
    |                      |--N. curvatus GN54
    |                      `--N. sinuosus A50
    `--+--+--+--Cavitermes tuberosus IVE07, GE05
       |  |  `--+--Dihoplotermes IVE07
       |  |     `--Spinitermes IVE07
       |  |          |--S. nigrostomus A50
       |  |          `--S. trispinosus IVE07
       |  `--+--Termes IVE07
       |     `--Capritermes Wasmann 1897 IVE07, H42
       |          |--C. capricornis S57
       |          |--C. nemorosus S57
       |          `--C. schultzei Holmgren 1911 H42
       `--+--+--+--Verrucositermes tuberosus IVE07
          |  |  `--+--Orientotermes emersoni IVE07
          |  |     `--Protohamitermes globiceps IVE07
          |  `--+--Nasutitermitinae IVE07
          |     `--+--+--Homallotermes IVE07
          |        |  |    |--H. eleanorae IVE07
          |        |  |    `--H. penangi A50
          |        |  `--Pericapritermes Silvestri 1914 IVE07, M91
          |        |       |--*P. urgens Silvestri 1914 M91
          |        |       |--P. ceylonicus IVE07
          |        |       |--P. machadoi Noirot 1955 N55
          |        |       |--P. magnificus JK75
          |        |       |--P. nitobei IVE07
          |        |       `--P. schultzei (Homgren 1911) M91
          |        `--+--+--Quasitermes caprinus A50
          |           |  `--+--Cornicapritermes mucronatus A50
          |           |     `--Mirocapritermes IVE07
          |           |          |--M. connectus A50
          |           |          `--M. latignathus IVE07
          |           `--+--Procapritermes setiger IVE07
          |              `--+--Sinocapritermes mushae IVE07
          |                 `--Dicuspiditermes IVE07
          |                      |--D. incola IVE07
          |                      `--D. santschii GE05
          `--+--+--Tuberculitermes bycanistes IVE07 [incl. T. bycanistes var. guineensis A50]
             |  `--+--Syntermitinae IVE07
             |     |--+--Cephalotermes rectangularis IVE07
             |     |  `--Cylindrotermes IVE07
             |     |       |--C. nordenskioeldi A50
             |     |       `--C. parvignathus IVE07
             |     `--+--Microcerotermes IVE07
             |        `--Neocapritermes IVE07
             |             |  i. s.: N. angusticeps A50
             |             |         N. opacus [=Capritermes opacus] S57
             |             |--N. taracua IVE07
             |             `--+--N. talpa IVE07
             |                `--+--N. longinotus IVE07
             |                   `--N. talpoides IVE07
             `--+--+--Planicapritermes planiceps IVE07
                |  `--+--Orthognathotermes wheeleri IVE07, A50
                |     `--+--Prohamitermes mirabilis IVE07
                |        `--Globitermes IVE07
                |             |--G. globosus IVE07
                |             `--G. sulphureus H79
                `--+--+--Angulitermes frontalis IVE07, A50
                   |  `--Promirotermes IVE07
                   |       |--P. connectens IVE07
                   |       |--P. holmgreni A50
                   |       `--P. redundans IVE07
                   `--+--+--Eremotermes fletcheri A50
                      |  |--Synhamitermes quadriceps A50
                      |  `--Pseudomicrotermes alboniger A50
                      `--+--Amitermes IVE07
                         `--Gnathamitermes A50
                              |--G. perplexus N90
                              `--G. tubiformans N90

Termitinae incertae sedis:
  Mirotermes Wasmann 1897 M91, H42
    |--M. insignitus Hill 1942 H42
    |--M. ocellaris (Mjöberg 1920) [=Eutermes ocellaris] H42
    |--M. odontomachus (Desneux 1905) [=Termes (Eutermes) odontomachus] H42
    |--M. pelatus Hill 1942 H42
    `--M. percomis Hill 1942 H42
  Invasitermes Miller 1984 M84
    |--*I. inermis Miller 1984 M84
    `--I. insitivus (Hill 1929) [=Mirotermes insitivus, Termes insitivus] M84
  Incolitermes pumilus G70
  Ceratotermes A50
  Megagnathotermes notandus A50
  Spicotermes brevicarinatus A50
  Crepititermes verruculosus A50
  Hesperotermes Gay 1971 M91
    `--*H. infrequens (Hill 1927) [=Mirotermes infrequens]
  Apsenterotermes Miller 1991 M91
    |--*A. improcerus Miller 1991 M91
    |--A. aspersus Miller 1991 M91
    |--A. declinatus Miller 1991 M91
    |--A. iridipennis (Gay 1956) [=Termes iridipennis] M91
    `--A. stenopronos Miller 1991 M91
  Ekphysotermes Gay 1971 M91
    |--*E. kalgoorliensis (Hill 1942) M91, H42 [=Mirotermes kalgoorliensis M91]
    |--E. jarmuranus (Hill 1929) M91, H42 [=Mirotermes jarmuranus M91]
    |--E. ocellaris M91
    |--E. pelatus M91
    `--E. percomis M91
  Hapsidotermes Miller 1991 M91
    |--*H. maideni (Mjöberg 1920) [=Mirotermes maideni, Termes maideni] M91
    |--H. harrisi (Mjöberg 1920) [=Mirotermes harrisi, Termes harrisi; incl. M. alicensis Mjöberg 1920] M91
    |--H. labellus Miller 1991 M91
    |--H. longius Miller 1991 M91
    `--M. orbus (Hill 1927) [=Mirotermes orbus, Termes orbus] M91
  0--Saxatilitermes Miller 1991 M91
  |    `--*S. saxatilis Miller 1991 M91
  `--Lophotermes Miller 1991 M91
       |--*L. pectinatus Miller 1991 M91
       |--L. aduncus Miller 1991 M91
       |--L. brevicephalus Miller 1991 M91
       |--L. crinitus Miller 1991 M91
       |--L. leptognathus Miller 1991 M91
       |--L. parvicornis Miller 1991 M91
       |--L. pusillus Miller 1991 M91
       |--L. quadratus (Hill 1927) [=Mirotermes quadratus, Termes quadratus] M91
       `--L. septentrionalis (Hill 1927) [=Mirotermes septentrionalis, Termes septentrionalis] M91
  Amphidotermes basidens A50
  Eurytermes assmuthi A50
  Hoplotermes amplus A50
  Ahamitermes Mjöberg 1920 A50, H42
    |--A. hilli Nicholls 1929 [=Hamitermes (Ahamitermes) hillii] H42
    |--A. nidicola Mjöberg 1920 [=Hamitermes (Ahamitermes) nidicola] H42
    `--A. pumilus (Hill 1942) [=Hamitermes (Ahamitermes) pumilus] H42
  Pseudocapritermes silvaticus A50
  Protocapritermes Holmgren 1912 M91
    `--P. krisiformis (Froggatt 1898) M91 (see below for synonymy)

Protocapritermes krisiformis (Froggatt 1898) M91 [=Termes krisiformis M91, Mirotermes (Protocapritermes) krisiformis H42, T. (Eutermes) krisiformis H42]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A50] Ahmad, M. 1950. The phylogeny of termite genera based on imago-worker mandibles. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 95 (2): 37–86.

[G70] Gay, F. J. 1970. Isoptera (termites). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 275–293. Melbourne University Press.

[GN54] Grassé, P.-P., & C. Noirot. 1954. Apicotermes arquieri (Isoptère): ses constructions, sa biologie. Considérations générales sur la sous-famille des Apicotermitinae nov. Annales des Sciences Naturelles—Zoologie et Biologie Animale, ser. 11, 16: 345–388.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: Aspects of defense and integration. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

[IVE07] Inward, D. J. G., A. P. Vogler & P. Eggleton. 2007. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of termites (Isoptera) illuminates key aspects of their evolutionary biology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 953–967.

[JK75] Jacobson, H. R., & D. H. Kistner. 1975. Numeric analyses of relationships of genera and species of the subtribe Termitusina (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Systematic Zoology 24 (2): 191–198.

[M84] Miller, L. R. 1984. Invasitermes, a new genus of soldierless termites from northern Australia (Isoptera: Termitidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 23: 33–37.

[M91] Miller, L. R. 1991. A revision of the Termes-Capritermes branch of the Termitinae in Australia (Isoptera: Termitidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 1147–1282.

[N55] Noirot, C. 1955. Termites du centre et du sud-ouest de l'Angola récoltés par A. de Barros Machado. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 139–150.

[N90] Nutting, W. L. 1990. Insecta: Isoptera. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 997–1032. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[S57] Seevers, C. H. 1957. A monograph on the termitophilous Staphylinidae (Coleoptera). Fieldiana Zoology 40: 1–334.

Last updated: 10 April 2017.

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