Chrysopa perla, copyright James K. Lindsey.

Belongs within: Chrysopidae.
Contains: Chrysopodes (Chrysopodes).

The Chrysopini are a group of green lacewings characterised by having antennae shorter than the wings. Some can emit a foul odor in self-defense (Freitas & Penny 2001).

Characters (from Freitas & Penny 2001): Adults relatively thin-bodied; antennae shorter than wings; antennomeres longer than wide beyond the first few basal segments; forewing pterostigmal area completely pale; outer gradate series of crossveins at broad angle (more than 60°) to pseudomedial vein. Larvae free-living on vegetation.

    |--Ungla MF05
    |    |--U. argentina (Navás 1911) (see below for synonymy) MF05
    |    `--U. binaria (Navás 1922) [=Chrysopa binaria] MF05
    |--Plesiochrysa FP01
    |    |--P. alytos de Freitas & Penny 2001 FP01
    |    |--P. brasiliensis (Schneider 1851) FP01
    |    `--P. elongata (Navás 1913) FP01
    |--Chrysoperla Steinmann 1964 FP01
    |    |--C. carnea FP01
    |    |--C. defreitasi Brooks 1994 FP01
    |    |--C. externa (Hagen 1861) (see below for synonymy) MF05
    |    `--C. raimundoi de Freitas & Penny 2001 FP01
    |--Chrysopodes Navás 1913 FP01
    |    |--C. (Chrysopodes) FP01
    |    `--C. (Neosuarius) Adams & Penny 1987 FP01
    |         |--C. (N.) collaris (Schneider 1851) FP01
    |         |--C. (N.) divisa (Walker 1853) FP01
    |         |--C. (N.) karinae de Freitas & Penny 2001 FP01
    |         `--C. (N.) porterina (Navás 1910) [=Chrysopa porterina, Chrysopa porteri (l. c.)] MF05
    |--Ceraeochrysa Adams 1982 FP01
    |    |--C. acmon Penny 1998 FP01
    |    |--C. berlandi FP01
    |    |--C. caligata (Banks 1945) FP01
    |    |--C. cincta (Schneider 1851) FP01
    |    |--C. claveri (Navás 1911) FP01
    |    |--C. costaricensis FP01
    |    |--C. cubana (Hagen 1861) FP01
    |    |--C. dislepis de Freitas & Penny 2001 FP01
    |    |--C. dolichosvela de Freitas & Penny 2001 FP01
    |    |--C. everes (Banks 1920) FP01
    |    |--C. lineaticornis FP01
    |    |--C. montoyana (Navás 1913) FP01
    |    |--C. paraguaria (Navás 1920) [=Chrysopa paraguaria, Plesiochrysa paraguaria] FP01
    |    |--C. sanchezi (Navás 1924) FP01
    |    |--C. scapularis (Navás 1914) FP01
    |    |--C. squama de Freitas & Penny 2001 FP01
    |    |--C. tauberae FP01
    |    |--C. tenuicornis Adams & Penny 1987 FP01
    |    |--C. tucumana (Navás 1919) FP01
    |    `--C. valida FP01
    `--Chrysopa Leach 1815 N80
         |--*C. perla [=Hemerobius perla] N80
         |--C. adamsi New 1980 N80
         |--C. alcines Banks 1940 N80
         |--C. atalotis Banks 1910 N80
         |--C. australis New 1980 N80
         |--C. basalis Walker 1853 (see below for synonymy) N80
         |--C. boninensis N80
         |--C. cardaleae New 1980 N80
         |--C. carnea FM80
         |--C. conformis (Rambur 1842) [=Hemerobius conformis] FP01
         |--C. cubana VC07
         |--C. darwini Banks 1940 N80
         |--C. dispar Kimmins 1952 [=C. (Anisochrysa) dispar] N80
         |--C. downesi FM80
         |--C. edwardsi Banks 1940 [incl. C. edwardsi puncticollis Banks 1940] N80
         |--C. eremita Kimmins 1955 [=C. (Apertochrysa) eremita] N80
         |--C. formosa K01
         |--C. furcifera N80
         |--C. innotata Walker 1853 [incl. C. assimilata Navás 1934] N80
         |--C. italotis Banks 1910 N80
         |--C. jocaste Banks 1940 N80
         |--C. maculithorax Kimmins 1936 N80
         |--C. oceanica Walker 1853 N80
         |--C. oculata FP01
         |--C. otalatis Banks 1910 N80
         |--C. personata Navás 1934 N80
         |--C. pulchrina Tjeder 1966 N80
         |--C. punctithorax New 1980 N80
         |--C. ramburi Schneider 1851 (see below for synonymy) N80
         |--C. satilota Banks 1910 [=C. (Chrysoperla) satilota] N80
         |--C. scelestes N80
         |--C. septempunctata K01
         |--C. sequens Banks 1943 N80
         |--C. signata Schneider 1851 [incl. C. alcatoa Banks 1943] N80
         |--C. signatipennis Banks 1910 N80
         |--C. slossonae GE05
         |--C. traviata Banks 1940 N80
         |--C. triactinata New 1980 N80
         |--C. tripunctata McLachlan 1867 [=C. (Anisochrysa) tripunctata, Nothochrysa tripunctata] N80
         |--C. vulgaris M47
         `--C. walkeri K01

Chrysopa basalis Walker 1853 [=C. (Anisochrysa) basalis, Mallada basalis; incl. C. latotalis Banks 1910, C. microphya McLachlan 1883, C. olatatis Banks 1910] N80

Chrysoperla externa (Hagen 1861) [=Chrysopa externa; incl. Chrysopa lanata var. basalis Navás 1920 non C. basalis Walker 1853, Chrysopa lanata var. climacia Navás 1917, Chrysopa graciana Navás 1919, Chrysoperla gracina (l. c.), Chrysopa lanata var. gradata Navás 1919, Chrysopa lanata (Banks 1910), Chrysopa lanata var. picta Navás 1932, Chrysopa lanata var. platensis Navás 1915, Chrysopa plorabunda Firsch 1856, Chrysopa lanata var. unita Navás 1919] MF05

Chrysopa ramburi Schneider 1851 [incl. C. deutera Navás 1914, C. jaluitana Kempny 1904, C. neutra Navás 1910, C. notosticta Navás 1914, C. reaumeri Navás 1914, C. vicina Kempny 1904] N80

Ungla argentina (Navás 1911) [=Hypocrhysa argentina, Chrysopa argentina, Suarius argentinus; incl. Ungla annulata Navás 1914] MF05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[FP01] Freitas, S. de, & N. D. Penny. 2001. The green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) of Brazilian agro-ecosystems. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 245–395.

[FM80] Futuyma, D. J., & G. C. Mayer. 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Systematic Zoology 29 (3): 254–271.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K01] Klapálek, F. 1901. Neuropteroidák [Neuropteroiden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 203–221. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263–288.

[MF05] Monserrat, V. J. & S. de Freitas. 2005. Contribución al conocimiento de los crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Graellsia 61 (2): 163–179.

[N80] New, T. R. 1980. A revision of the Australian Chrysopidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 77: 1–143.

[VC07] Villanueva, R. T., & C. C. Childers. 2007. Insect predators of eriophyids on Florida citrus including a new predacious Lepidoptera and two cecidomyiids. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress, pp. 391–395. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS