Ichneutinae

Apanteles glomeratus, copyright André Lequet.


Belongs within: Braconidae.

The Ichneutinae are generally recognised as a small group of braconids endoparasitic on larvae of Lepidoptera or Hymenoptera (Tenthredinoidea), characterised by the presence of an abrupt curve at the anterior end of forewing vein 1-M (Achterberg 1993). However, Achterberg (1993) suggested that Ichneutinae was paraphyletic to a number of other subfamilies. These include the Microgastrinae, a diverse group of endoparasites of larval Lepidoptera characterised by eighteen-segmented antennae, which are among the earliest braconids to emerge in spring in many parts of the world (Achterberg 1993).

<==Ichneutinae A93
    |  i. s.: Anaprixia Mason 1991 A93
    |--Oligoneurus [Muesebeckiini] A93
    |    `--O. concolor A93
    `--+--Ichneutes Nees 1816 HP-W05 [Ichneutini A93]
       |    |--I. brevis A93
       |    `--I. reunitor A93
       `--+--Proterops [Proteropinae] A93
          |    `--P. nigripennis A93
          `--+--Neoneurinae A93
             |    |--Neoneurus auctus A93
             |    `--Elasmosoma berolinense A93
             `--+--Miracinae A93
                |    |--Mirax A93
                |    `--Centistidea ectoedemiae A93
                `--+--+--Khoikhoia [Khoikhoiinae] A93
                   |  |    `--K. lission A93
                   |  `--Cardiochilinae A93
                   |       |--Pseudcardiochiles abnormipes A93
                   |       `--Cardiochiles A93
                   |            |--C. fumipennis Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
                   |            |--C. nigriceps A71
                   |            |--C. punctatus A93
                   |            `--C. saltator [incl. C. saltator var. brachialis] MS01
                   `--Microgastrinae A93
                        |  i. s.: Protomicroplitis N91
                        |--Microgaster [Microgastrini] A93
                        |    `--M. stictica A93
                        |--Microplitis [Microplitini] A93
                        |    |--M. deprimator A93
                        |    |--M. lugubris MS01
                        |    |--M. maculipennis B88
                        |    |--M. ocellatae P93
                        |    |--M. sordipes MS01
                        |    `--M. vidua P93
                        |--Cotesiini A93
                        |    |--Fornicia clathrata A93
                        |    `--Cotesia F04
                        |         |--C. abjectus P93
                        |         |--C. coryphe P93
                        |         |--C. erionotae F04
                        |         |--C. glomeratus H91
                        |         |--C. nigriventris P93
                        |         |--C. saltator P93
                        |         `--C. vestalis PK17
                        `--Apanteles [Apantelini] A93
                             |--A. cajae A71
                             |--A. congestus MS01
                             |--A. deliadis B88
                             |--A. ferrugineus MS01
                             |--A. geryonis MS01
                             |--A. gladiator Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
                             |--A. glomeratus B88
                             |--A. impartunus VHK02
                             |--A. impurus MS01
                             |--A. machaeralis VHK02
                             |--A. malevolus VHK02
                             |--A. obscuripes A93
                             |--A. oenone NS84
                             |--A. pallidipes MS01
                             |--A. plutellae B88
                             |--A. rubecula [=Cotesia rubecula] B88
                             |--A. similis Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
                             |--A. xanthocarpus Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
                             `--A. zygaenarum MS01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A93] Achterberg, C. van. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen 283: 1–189.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F04] Ferrar, P. 2004. Australian entomology: isolated, or in touch with the rest of the world? Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 329–333.

[HP-W05] Heitland, W., & H. Pschorn-Walcher. 2005. Biology and parasitoids of the peculiar alder sawfly, Platycampus luridiventris (Fallen) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 215–231.

[H91] Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 485–509.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[NS84] Naumann, I. D., & D. P. A. Sands. 1984. Two Australian Elasmus spp. (Hymenoptera: Elasmidae), parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): their taxonomy and biology. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 23: 25–32.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

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