Cardiochiles nigriceps attacking a tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, copyright Andrei Sourakov.

Belongs within: Ichneumonoidea.
Contains: Microgastrinae.

The Ichneutinae are a small group of braconids endoparasitic on larvae of Lepidoptera or Hymenoptera (Tenthredinoidea), characterised by the presence of an abrupt curve at the anterior end of forewing vein 1-M (Achterberg 1993). However, Achterberg (1993) suggested that Ichneutinae was paraphyletic to a number of other subfamilies. These include the Miracinae, Cardiochilinae and Microgastrinae, all endoparasites of larvale Lepidoptera, which share the complete absence of the occipital carina, and have the spiracles of the first metasomal tergite on the weakly sclerotised epipleuron. Cardiochilinae have a greater number of antennal segments (20–51) than members of the other two subfamilies and their maxillary palps have six rather than five segments (Achterberg 1993).

<==Ichneutinae A93
    |  i. s.: Anaprixia Mason 1991 A93
    |--Oligoneurus [Muesebeckiini] A93
    |    `--O. concolor A93
    `--+--Ichneutes Nees 1816 HP-W05 [Ichneutini A93]
       |    |--I. brevis A93
       |    `--I. reunitor A93
       `--+--Proterops [Proteropinae] A93
          |    `--P. nigripennis A93
          `--+--Neoneurinae A93
             |    |--Neoneurus auctus A93
             |    `--Elasmosoma berolinense A93
             `--+--Miracinae A93
                |    |--Centistidea ectoedemiae A93
                |    `--Mirax A93
                |         |--M. insularis Muesebeck 1937 M37
                |         |--M. leucopterae Wilkinson 1936 M37
                |         `--M. texana M37
                `--+--+--Khoikhoia [Khoikhoiinae] A93
                   |  |    `--K. lission A93
                   |  `--Cardiochilinae A93
                   |       |--Pseudcardiochiles abnormipes A93
                   |       |--Bohayella DW96
                   |       |--Retusigaster DW96
                   |       |--Brevicardiochiles DW96
                   |       |--Toxoneuron DW96
                   |       |--Hansonia Dangerfield in Dangerfield, Whitfield et al. 1996 DW96
                   |       |    `--*H. chavarriai Dangerfield in Dangerfield, Whitfield et al. 1996 DW96
                   |       `--Cardiochiles A93
                   |            |--C. fumipennis Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
                   |            |--C. nigriceps A71
                   |            |--C. punctatus A93
                   |            `--C. saltator [incl. C. saltator var. brachialis] MS01
                   `--Microgastrinae A93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A93] Achterberg, C. van. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen 283: 1–189.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[DW96] Dangerfield, P. C., J. B. Whitfield, M. J. Sharkey, D. H. Janzen & I. Mercado. 1996. Hansonia, a new genus of cardiochiline Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from Costa Rica, with notes on its biology. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 592–596.

[HP-W05] Heitland, W., & H. Pschorn-Walcher. 2005. Biology and parasitoids of the peculiar alder sawfly, Platycampus luridiventris (Fallen) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 215–231.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M37] Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1937. A new West Indian species of Mirax Haliday parasitic on the coffee leaf-miner (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (6): 139–141.

Last updated: 6 March 2021.

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