Female Bracon variegator, copyright Landcare Research.

Belongs within: Braconidae.

The Braconinae are a cosmopolitan group of mostly ectoparasitic braconid wasps, with hosts including larval Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and phytophagous Hymenoptera (Achterberg 1993). They may give of a distinct odour when handled (Naumann 1991). Species of one group, the Aspidobraconina, are endoparasitic on butterfly pupae (Quicke & Ingram 1993).

Characters (from Achterberg 1993): Hypoclypeal depression deep and wide, middle part of apparent ventral margin of clypeus distinctly above upper level of mandible bases, bottom of hypoclypeal depression consisting of concave labrum and depressed ventral part of clypeus; maxillary palp with five segments; prepectal carina absent laterally; mesopleuron usually completely flat; length of vein 1-M in hind wing at least 1.5 times M+CU and usually more or less widened basally.

    |--Argamania [Argamaniini] A93
    |    `--A. aereus A93
    |--Euurobracon [incl. Delmira, Exobracon, Lissobracon; Euurobraconini] QI93
    |    `--E. latitempus QI93
    |--Vipiomorpha [Glyptomorphini] QI93
    |    `--V. ypsilon QI93
    |--Bathyaulacini QI93
    |    |--Stenobracon [incl. Elphea, Phanaulax] QI93
    |    `--Bathyaulax cyanogaster QLB05
    |--Adeshini QI93
    |    |--Furcadesha QI93
    |    |    |--*F. huddlestoni QI93
    |    |    `--F. walteri Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
    |    `--Africadesha QI93
    |         |--A. tobiasi Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
    |         `--A. usherwoodi QI93
    |--Aphrastobraconini A93
    |    |  i. s.: Compsobracon A93
    |    |         Floralibracon floralis A93
    |    |         Pseudodicrogenium monstrosum A93
    |    `--Aphrastobraconina QI93
    |         |--Cedilla cedilla QI93
    |         |--Curriea QI93
    |         |--*Ligulibracon levor QI93
    |         |--Megalommum QI93
    |         |--Eucurriea QI93
    |         |--Vipiellus QI93
    |         `--Undabracon QI93
    |              |--U. nigrithorax QI93
    |              `--U. sinuatus QI93
    `--Braconini A93
         |  i. s.: Physaraia furcata A93
         |         Simra cecidophila A93
         |         Esengoides QI93
         |           |--E. crenulatus QI93
         |           `--E. fulvus QI93
         |         Gelasinibracon QI93
         |           |--G. sedlaceki QI93
         |           `--G. simplicicaudatus QI93
         |         Habrobracon QI93
         |           |--H. gelechiae QI93
         |           |--H. hebetor QI93
         |           `--H. juglandis N38
         |         Bracon [incl. Amicoplidea, Liobracon, Macrodyctium, Microbracon, Seliodus, Tropidobracon] QI93
         |           |--B. bisignatus MS01
         |           |--‘Microbracon’ brevicornis A71
         |           |--B. cingulator MS01
         |           |--B. distinctus Lucas 1849 E12
         |           |--B. erythrothorax Lucas 1849 E12
         |           |--B. fulvipes A93
         |           |--B. hebetor [=Microbracon hebetor] KSM06
         |           |--B. mellitor P91
         |           |--B. ruficornis G20
         |           |--B. tenuicornis MS01
         |           `--B. variegator M83
         |         Psittacibracon lacteolus QI93
         |         Pycnobraconoides Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
         |           |--*P. mutator (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) QI93
         |           `--P. froggattii (Cameron 1911) [=Bracon froggattii] QI93
         |         Testudobracon QI93
         |           |--T. australicolorus Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
         |           |--T. longicaudis QI93
         |           |--T. niger QI93
         |           |--T. pleuralis QI93
         |           |--T. tatyanae Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
         |           `--T. unicolorus Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
         `--Aspidobraconina QI93
              |--Hyboteles toxopeusi QI93
              |--Aspidobracon QI93
              |--Philomacroploea QI93
              `--Pedinopleura QI93
                   |--P. australiensis Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
                   |--P. emarginata QI93
                   `--P. koshuensis QI93

Braconinae incertae sedis:
  Virgulibracon QI93
    |--*V. vulsus QI93
    `--V. endoxylophagus Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
  Iphiaulax [incl. Aniphiaulax, Euglyptobracon, Iphiaulacidea] QI93
    |--I. australiensis QI93
    `--I. impostor MS01
  Callibracon [incl. Poecilobracon] QI93
    `--*Poecilobracon’ flaviceps Cameron 1901 QI93
  Pycnobracon N91
  Trigastrotheca [incl. Coelodontus, Odontopygia] QI93
    |--T. tricolor Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
    |--T. tridentata QI93
    `--T. trilobata QI93
  Acrocerilia QI93
    |--*A. pachynervis QI93
    `--A. tricolor Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
  Simplicibracon QI93
    |--S. curticaudis QI93
    |--S. maculigaster QI93
    `--S. nigritarsus Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
  Calcaribracon QI93
    |  i. s.: C. ferax QI93
    `--C. (Arostrobracon) QI93
         |--C. (A.) diores QI93
         |--C. (A.) walkeralis QI93
         `--C. (A.) willani Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
  Tropobracon [incl. Shirakia] QI93
  Myosoma [incl. Acanthobracon, Amyosoma] QI93
    |--M. chinensis QI93
    |--M. rufescens Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
    `--M. yanoi QI93
  Mollibracon bimaris QI93
  Serratobracon cardaleae QI93
  *Ploceibracon monstrans QI93
  Stigmatobracon QI93
    |--S. diversipennis QI93
    `--S. xanthostigma QI93
  Vomeribracon ingressor QI93
  Virgulibraconoides QI93
  Euurobraconoides longicaudis QI93
  Atanycolus [incl. Coelobracon, Melanobracon; Atanycolidae] QI93
    |--A. australiensis Quicke & Ingram 1993 QI93
    `--A. sculpturatus MS01
  Chaoilta [incl. Iphioilta, Platybracon] QI93
    `--C. (Blastomorpha) decorata QI93
  Macrobracon nobilis QI93
  Eunesaulax QI93
    |--E. nigriventris QI93
    |--E. radialis QI93
    `--E. terebratus QI93
  Paranesaulax nitor QI93
  Rostraulax xanthocephalus QI93
  Campyloneurus [incl. Diolcia, Monolcia] QI93
  Plesiobracon QI93
  Psilolobus QI93
  Hemibracon QI93
  Nedinoschiza QI93
  Cyanopterus [incl. Ipobracon] QI93
  Odontoscapus QI93
  Zeuzerilia QI93
  Mesobracon QI93
  Pseudoshirakia QI93
  Cratobracon QI93
  Shelfordia QI93
  Sylvibracon QI93
  Kenema QI93
  Zaglyptogastra QI93
  Monilobracon QLB05
  Latana keijua QLB05
  Merinotus QLB05
  Plaxopsis QLB05
  Archibracon deliberator QLB05
  Sororarchibracon QLB05
  Megagonia QLB05
  Goniobracon QLB05

*Pycnobraconoides mutator (Fabricius 1775) [=Ichneumon mutator, Myosoma mutator; incl. Iphiaulax bipartitus Szépligeti 1905] QI93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A93] Achterberg, C. van. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen 283: 1–189.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[KSM06] King, R. C., W. D. Stansfield & P. K. Mulligan. 2006. A Dictionary of Genetics 7th ed. Oxford University Press.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N38] Nolan, W. J. 1938. Sex determination in the honeybee. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (4): 105–107.

[P91] Petrushov, A. Z. 1991. Selection and mechanisms of ambush resistance in Metaseiulus occidentalis N. (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 741–748. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[QI93] Quicke, D. L. J., & S. N. Ingram. 1993. Braconine wasps of Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 33 (1): 299–336.

[QLB05] Quicke, D. L. J., N. M. Laurenne & M. Barclay. 2005. A new host record for the Afrotropical parasitic wasp genus Bathyaulax Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae) confirmed using DNA sequence data. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 96–101.

Last updated: 7 March 2021.

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