Araneus

European garden spider Araneus diadematus, copyright Böhringer Friedrich.


Belongs within: Araneini.

Araneus is a genus of orb-weaving spiders including the European garden spider Araneus diadematus and related species. The name has been used in a much broader sense in the past (at its broadest, as a generic name for all spiders); many of the species listed below would now be placed in segregate genera. The type species, A. angulatus, is a widespread species in the Palaearctic region characterised by angular lateral humps on the opisthosoma, which is mostly dark with a light cross-shaped marking between the humps.

<==Araneus Clerck 1758 F11 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*A. angulatus Clerck 1757 G76
    |--A. acuminatus (K. 1871) [=Epeira acuminata] R13
    |--‘Epeira’ albomaculata Lucas 1846 E12
    |--‘Epeira’ albotriangula Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ alpica K01
    |--A. alsine Walckenaer 1802 G76 [=Epeira alsine K01]
    |--A. anantnagensis Tikader & Bal 1981 TB81
    |--‘Epeira’ anatipes Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Aranea’ angulata Linnaeus 1758 L58 [=Epeira angulata K01]
    |--‘Epeira’ annulata Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ anseripes Walckenaer 1841 [incl. Cyclosa melanura Simon 1877] KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ arenacea Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ armida K01
    |--‘Aranea’ arundinacea Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ atrox L02a
    |--‘Epeira’ balanus Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ bertkani Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
    |--A. biapicatifer Strand 1907 [=Aranea biapicatifera] J98
    |--A. bicentenarius DC01
    |--‘Epeira’ bifida Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--A. bilunifer (Pocock 1900) HU08
    |--‘Aranea’ bipunctata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--A. bituberculatus (Walckenaer 1802) TB81 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Epeira’ bogoriensis Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ bradleyi Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--A. brisbanae (Koch 1867) PVD10 [=Epeira brisbanae KK90]
    |--A. brounii Urquhart 1844 S99 [=Aranea brouni M54]
    |--‘Aranea’ caementaria L02a
    |--‘Aranea’ calophylla Walckenaer 1802 G76
    |--‘Aranea’ calycina Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ cancriformis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ caputlupi Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ carbonaria K01
    |--A. cavaticus (Keyserling 1881) B11
    |--A. cingulatus DC01
    |--A. circe Savigny & Audouin 1825 G76 [=Epeira circe K01]
    |--‘Epeira’ circulissparsa Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Aranea’ citrea L02a
    |--‘Epeira’ collina Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ cornuta K01 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Aranea’ corollata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ cossoni Sim. 1885 K01
    |--A. cucurbitinus Clerck 1757 TB81 [=Aranea cucurbitina L58, Araniella cucurbitina G76, Epeira cucurbitina V09]
    |--‘Epeira’ cyrtarachnoides Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ dehaanii Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--A. diadematus Clerck 1757 G76 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Aranea’ domestica Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ dorsalis L02a
    |--A. eburniventris MC13
    |--A. eburnus (Keyserling 1886) F11 [=Epeira eburna KK90]
    |--A. ejusmodi Bösenberg & Strand 1906 AM11
    |--‘Epeira’ enucleata Karsch 1879 K92
    |--‘Epeira’ ephippiata K92
    |--‘Epeira’ exanthematica Doleschall 1859 KK90
    |--A. exsertus MC13
    |--‘Aranea’ extensa Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ fastidiosa Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Aranea’ fimbriata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ flavissima Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ florentina L02a
    |--‘Aranea’ formicaria L02a
    |--‘Epeira’ furcifera Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ geniculata D57
    |--A. gibbosus Walckenaer 1802 G76 [=Epeira gibbosa V09, Gibbaranea gibbosa G76]
    |--A. grossus Koch 1845 G76 [=Epeira grossa K01]
    |--‘Epeira’ heroine Koch 1871 KK90
    |--‘Aranea’ heteropthalma L02b
    |--A. himalayaensis Tikader 1975 TB81
    |--‘Epeira’ himalayana Sim. 1889 K01
    |--‘Epeira’ hirsutula Stoliczka 1869 S69
    |--‘Epeira’ hispida Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Aranea’ holosericea Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ hombergii L02a
    |--‘Epeira’ idonea Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ inconspicua K01
    |--‘Epeira’ indistincta Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ inquieta Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--A. iviei DC01
    |--‘Epeira’ junghuhnii Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ kuhlii Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ labyrinthea B06
    |--‘Aranea’ labyrinthica Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ lancearia Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Aranea’ lapidaria L02b
    |--A. lathyrinus (Holmberg 1875) AM11
    |--‘Aranea’ levipes Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ lineata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira lineata’ Lucas 1846 non Aranea lineata Linnaeus 1758 E12
    |--‘Epeira’ lodicula Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--A. lutulentus (Koch & Keyserling 1886) MC13, KK90 [=Epeira lutulenta KK90]
    |--‘Epeira’ malabarica D57
    |--‘Epeira’ mamillana Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ manipa Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--‘Epeira’ margaritacea Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Aranea’ marginata L02a
    |--A. marmoreus Clerck 1757 G76 [=Epeira marmorea K01]
    |--‘Epeira’ mediocris Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |--‘Aranea’ melanogaster L02b
    |--A. miniatus DC01
    |--‘Aranea’ mirabilis L02a
    |--A. mitificus (Simon 1886) AM11 [=Epeira mitifica TB81; incl. Zilla nawazi Dyal 1935 TB81]
    |--‘Epeira’ moluccensis Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--A. mongolicus Simon 1895 [=Araneus (Epeira) mongolicus] S95
    |--‘Aranea’ montana Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ mulieraria Koch & Keyseling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ necopina Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ nigropunctata KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ nigrotarsalis Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Aranea’ nocturna Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--A. nordmanni Thorell 1856 G76
    |--‘Aranea’ notata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--A. nympha Simon 1889 TB81
    |--‘Epeira’ obtusata Karsch 1892 K92
    |--‘Aranea’ ocellata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--A. omoeda Thorell 1856 [=Gibbaranea omoeda] G76
    |--‘Epeira’ orichalcea Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--‘Epeira’ packardii Thorell 1875 K01
    |--A. pahalgaonensis Tikader & Bal 1981 TB81
    |--A. panchganiensis Tikader & Bal 1981 TB81
    |--‘Epeira’ paradoxa Lucas 1846 E12
    |--A. pegnia DC01
    |--‘Epeira’ phthisica KK90
    |--‘Aranea’ pluchii L02a
    |--A. potanini Simon 1895 [=Araneus (Epeira) potanini] S95
    |--A. pratensis DC01
    |--‘Epeira’ proxima K01
    |--‘Epeira’ psittacina Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ pyramidata K92
    |--A. quadratus Clerck 1757 G76 [=Epeira quadrata K01]
    |--‘Aranea’ quadripunctata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ quattuorguttata [incl. A. cinnaberina] L02a
    |--‘Epeira’ quaesita Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ queribunda Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ quieta Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ rabiosula Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ radja Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--‘Epeira’ ramulosa Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ rara Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Aranea’ raui Strand 1907 J98
    |--‘Aranea’ recherchensis Main 1954 M54
    |--‘Aranea’ redimita Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ relucens L02a
    |--‘Aranea’ reticulata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ rhodosternon Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--A. rhombocephalus MC13
    |--‘Aranea’ riparia Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ rotundula Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ rubicundula Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Aranea’ rufipes Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ rupestris Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--A. saevus Koch 1872 G76 [=Epeira saeva K01]
    |--‘Aranea’ scenica Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ scutifera Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--‘Aranea’ senoculata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ sericea S69
    |--‘Aranea’ sexpunctata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Aranea’ smaragdula L02b
    |--‘Epeira’ solitaria K01
    |--‘Epeira’ spectabilis Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Aranea’ spinosa Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ squamifera Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ stigmatisata Karsch 1878 K92
    |--‘Epeira’ stolida Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--A. sturmi V09
    |--A. sublutia (Urquhart 1892) [=Epeira sublutia] NS00
    |--‘Epeira’ suspicax Cambridge 1876 K01
    |--‘Epeira’ sydneyica Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ tabida KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ talipedata Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--A. tartaricus [=A. (Epeira) tartaricus] S95
    |--‘Epeira’ theodori Thorell 1894 [=E. (Singa) theodori] T94
    |--‘Epeira’ thomisoides Duf. 1855 K92
    |--‘Aranea’ thoracica L02b
    |--A. transmarinus (Keyserling 1865) G84, KK90 [=Epeira transmarina KK90; incl. E. producta Koch 1867 KK90]
    |--A. trifolium DC01
    |--‘Epeira’ trituberculata Lucas 1846 E12
    |--‘Aranea’ truncorum Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--A. ullrichi (Hahn 1834) [=Epeira ullrichii, Gibbaranea ullrichii] G76
    |--A. undatus V09
    |--‘Epeira’ unicolor Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--‘Epeira’ urbana Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ usualis Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK90
    |--‘Epeira’ vallata Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--A. ventricosus (Koch 1878) AM11 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. verrucosus (Walckenaer 1841) [=Epeira verrucosa] S99
    |--‘Aranea’ viatica Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ victoria K01
    |--‘Aranea’ virescens Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--‘Epeira’ viriditus M54
    |--‘Epeira’ westringii K01
    `--‘Epeira’ wittfeldae B06

Araneus Clerck 1758 F11 [incl. Aranea Linnaeus 1758 G76, Burgessia McCook 1894 TB81, Conepeira Archer 1951 TB81, Epeira Latreille 1810 G76, Gibbaranea Archer 1951 G76, Neopora Simon 1864 TB81]

Araneus bituberculatus (Walckenaer 1802) TB81 [=Aranea bituberculata TB81, *Gibbaranea bituberculata G76; incl. Aranea alboarcuata Panzer 1804 TB81, Epeira bicornis Menge 1866 TB81, E. dromedaria Koch 1845 TB81, Araneus dromedarius TB81]

Araneus diadematus Clerck 1757 G76 [=Araneus (Epeira) diadematus S95, Epeira diademata K01; incl. *Aranea diadema Linnaeus 1758 G76, *Epeira diadema G76]

Araneus ventricosus (Koch 1878) AM11 [=Epeira ventricosa K01; incl. E. senta Karsch 1879 K01, Araneus (Epeira) sentus S95]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[B11] Blackledge, T. A. 2011. Prey capture in orb weaving spiders: are we using the best metric? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 205–210.

[DC01] Davis, M. J., & F. A. Coyle. 2001. Habitat distribution and life history of Araneus spider species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12 (2): 49–57.

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F11] Framenau, V. W. 2011. Lariniophora, a new monotypic orb-weaving spider genus from Australia (Araneae: Araneidae: Araneinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (2): 191–201.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G76] Grasshoff, M. 1976. Zur Taxonomie und Nomenklatur mitteleuropäischer Radnetzspinnen der Familie Araneidae (Arachnida: Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 143–154.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02a] Latreille, P. A. 1802a. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L02b] Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876–1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” (Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg), ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[S99] Simon, E. 1899. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland 1896–1897). Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie un Biologie der Thiere 12 (4): 411–437.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, plates 18–20.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1–63.

[TB81] Tikader, B. K., & A. Bal. 1981. Studies on some orb-weaving spiders of the genera Neoscona Simon and Araneus Clerck of the family Araneidae (=Argiopidae) from India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Miscellaneous Publication, Occasional Paper 24: 1–60.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

Last updated: 23 June 2017.

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