Eucalypteae

Lemon-scented gums Corymbia citriodora, photographed by Bidgee.


Belongs within: Myrtaceae.
Contains: Eucalyptus.

The Eucalypteae are a primarily Australasian group of trees. As well as the gum trees of the genus Eucalyptus, they include the bloodwoods and ghost gums of the genus Corymbia, and the apple gums of the genus Angophora.

Characters (from Wilson et al. 2005): Trees sometimes shrubby ("mallees"); hairs mostly absent. Juvenile leaves opposite, adult leaves opposite or alternate; oil ducts sometimes present in stems and petioles. Inflorescences various, occasionally paniculate and terminal; flowers often with calyptrate perianth; stamens numerous, free, borne on a stemonophore; anthers versatile to adnate, dehiscing by slits or pores. Ovary half-inferior, 2- or more locular; placentas axile; ovules anatropous, hemitropous or campylotropous, ovulodes present. Fruit a capsule; seeds variable, embryo with cotyledons deflexed, enclosing one another.

<==Eucalypteae [Eucalyptineae] WO05
    |  i. s.: Allosyncarpia WO05
    |--+--Eucalyptopsis papuana WO05
    |  `--Stockwellia quadrifida WO05
    `--+--Eucalyptus WO05
       `--+--Arillastrum gummiferum WO05
          `--+--Angophora WO05
             |    |--A. cordifolia P53
             |    |--A. floribunda GCC02
             |    |--A. hispida WO05
             |    |--A. intermedia W95
             |    |--A. lanceolata H42
             |    `--A. woodsiana YHT05
             `--Corymbia WO05
                  |--C. calophylla JK08
                  |--C. citriodora JK08
                  |--C. confertiflora B12
                  |--C. ferruginea WF01
                  |--C. hamersleyana EF04
                  |--C. polysciada WF01
                  |--C. semiclara EF04
                  `--C. variegata WO05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161-175.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[GCC02] Grant, C. D., C. J. Campbell & N. R. Charnock. 2002. Selection of species suitable for derelict mine site rehabilitation in New South Wales, Australia. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 139: 215-235.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[JK08] Johnstone, R. E., & T. Kirkby. 2008. Distribution, status, social organisation, movements and conservation of Baudin's cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) in south-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 107-118.

[P53] Paramonov, S. J. 1953. A review of Australian Apioceridae (Diptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 1 (3): 449-536.

[W95] Wang, Q. 1995. A taxonomic revision of the Australian genus Phoracantha Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 865-958.

[WO05] Wilson, P. G., M. M. O'Brien, M. M. Heslewood & C. J. Quinn. 2005. Relationships within Myrtaceae sensu lato based on a matK phylogeny. Plant Systematics and Evolution 251: 3-19.

[WF01] Woinarski, J. C. Z., A. Fisher, K. Brennan, I. Morris & R. Chatto. 2001. Patterns of bird species richness and composition on islands off Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. Austral Ecology 26: 1-13.

[YHT05] Yates, C. J., S. D. Hopper & R. H. Taplin. 2005. Native insect flower visitor diversity and feral honeybees on jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in Kings Park, an urban bushland remnant. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 147-153.

Malvaceae

Grewia damine, photographed by J. M. Garg.


Belongs within: Malvales.
Contains: Hermannia, Corchorus, Bombacoideae, Malvoideae, Sterculioideae, Helicteroideae, Tiliaceae, Dombeyoideae.

The Malvaceae as used here in the broad sense is an assemblage of plants previously divided between the families Malvaceae, Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae; polyphyly of the latter three families has lead to their inclusion in the first (Baum et al. 1998).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Shrubs to trees (occasionally herbs); cyclopropenoid fatty acids, terpenoid-based quinones present, gums common; wood commonly fluoresces; pits not vestured; tile cells common; sieve tubes with non-dispersive protein bodies; hairs stellate/lepidote; leaves spiral or two-ranked, lamina vernation usually conduplicate(to plicate), margins entire or toothed, single vein running to the non-glandular apex, secondary venation palmate; inflorescence made up of modified cymose units ["bicolor units"]; calyx valvate; stamens (5-)many, in five groups opposite the petals, but fundamentally obdiplostemonous, basally connate, extrorse; tapetal cells 2(-4)-nucleate; gynoecium variable in orientation, style usually 5-branched apically, stigma usually dry; ovules 1-many carpel; micropyle zig-zag (endo- or exostomal), outer integument develops first, 2-4(-7) cells across, inner integument 2-7(-10) cells across, parietal tissue 3-8 cells, across, nucellar cap 2-5 cells across, hypostase present, obturator present or absent; inverse postament present; fruit a capsule (berry, schizocarp, etc.; muricate); testa multiplicative, vascularized, endotesta crystalliferous, tegmen multiplicative, endotegmic cells more or less thickened; endosperm often starchy, embryo often green; sporophytic self-incompatibility system often present.

<==Malvaceae [Bombacaceae, Eumalvales, Malvineae, Sterculiaceae, Sterculiineae]
    |--Byttneriina [Byttneriaceae] BAN98
    |    |--Byttnerioideae BAN98
    |    |    |--Hermannia BAN98
    |    |    |--Kleinhovia hospita BAN98, Cl78
    |    |    |--Leptonychia BAN98
    |    |    |--Theobroma [Theobromeae] BAN98
    |    |    |    `--T. cacao BAN98
    |    |    |--Byttneria BAN98
    |    |    |    |--*B. scabra BAN98
    |    |    |    |--B. carthaginensis RS99
    |    |    |    `--B. herbacea Pau03
    |    |    `--Lasiopetalum [Lasiopetaleae] BAN98
    |    |         |--L. angustifolium KM08
    |    |         |--L. molle RL05
    |    |         `--L. oppositifolium RL05
    |    `--Grewioideae BAN98
    |         |--Apeiba BAN98
    |         |--Corchorus BAN98
    |         |--Heliocarpus americanus BAN98
    |         |--Sparmannia africana BAN98
    |         |--Grewia [Grewieae] BAN98
    |         |    |--G. asiatica Par03
    |         |    |--G. damine PP07
    |         |    |--G. flavescens Par03
    |         |    |--G. occidentalis BAN98
    |         |    |--G. orientalis KJ05
    |         |    |--G. tenax PP07
    |         |    |--G. tilaefolia S02
    |         |    `--G. villosa PP07
    |         `--Triumfetta BAN98
    |              |--T. lappula C55
    |              |--T. pentandra HK98
    |              |--T. rhomboidea BBO01
    |              `--T. semitriloba J87
    `--Malvadendrina BAN98
         |--Malvatheca BS04
         |    |--+--Bombacoideae BS04
         |    |  `--Malvoideae BS04
         |    `--+--Patinoa almirajo BS04, BAN98
         |       `--Ochroma BS04
         |            |--O. lagopus K06
         |            `--O. pyramidale SWK87
         `--+--Sterculioideae BS04
            `--+--+--Helicteroideae BS04
               |  `--Brownlowioideae BAN98
               |       |--Mortoniodendron BAN98
               |       `--+--Berrya [Berryeae] BAN98
               |          |--Brownlowia elata BS04, BAN98 [Brownlowieae]
               |          |--Christiana BAN98
               |          `--Jarandersonia BAN98
               `--+--Tiliaceae BS04
                  `--Dombeyoideae BS04

Malvaceae incertae sedis:
  Melochia D01
  Argyrodendron peralatum W01
  Pterygota P02
  Melhania futteyporensis PP07
  Acropogon YY22
  Basiloxylon YY22
  Dicarpidium YY22
  Firmiana S02
    |--F. colorata S02
    |--F. malayana P88
    `--F. simplex [incl. Sterculia platanifolia] LO98
  Octolobus YY22
  Pterocymbium YY22
  Tarrietia argyrodendron YY22, H42
  Tetradia YY22
  Erythropsis Lindley ex Schott & Endlicher 1832 FT93
  Thomasia RL05
    |--T. cognata RL05
    |--T. foliosa GK00
    |--T. macrocalyx OS04
    |--T. paniculata GK00
    `--T. pauciflora GK00
  Keraudrenia velutina G04
    |--K. v. ssp. velutina G04
    `--K. v. ssp. elliptica G04
  Rulingia GK00
    |--R. corylifolia GK00
    |--R. kempeana EF04
    `--R. loxophylla SM90
  Commersonia bartramia Cr78
  Hannafordia quadrivalvis KM08
  Malvastrum coromandelianum PP07
  Ambroma augusta BB07
  Hoheria G60
    |--H. angustifolia CA27
    |--H. glabrata C59
    |--H. lyalli B88
    |--H. populnea CA27
    `--H. sexstylosa CA27
  Parabombacaceoxylon WM09
  Javelinoxylon WM09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315-330.

[BS04] Baum, D. A., S. D. Smith, A. Yen, W. S. Alverson, R. Nyffeler, B. A. Whitlock & R. L. Oldham. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of Malvatheca (Bombacoideae and Malvoideae; Malvaceae sensu lato) as inferred from plastid DNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 91: 1863-1871.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[Cl78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[Cr78] Croft, J. R. 1978. Magnoliaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 129-134. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[C59] Cunningham, G. H. 1959. Hydnaceae of New Zealand. Part II.—The genus Odontia. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 65-103, pl. 110.

[D01] Doweld, A. B. 2001. The systematic relevance of fruit and seed structure in Bersama and Melianthus (Melianthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 75-103.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[G60] Gudex, M. C. 1960. The native flora of Bryant House-Whale Bay area. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 357-362.

[HK98] Hahn, A., & H. Kusserow. 1998. Spatial and temporal distribution of algae in soil crusts in the Sahel of W Africa: Preliminary results. Willdenowia 28: 227-238.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 121-130.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1-11.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[Par03] Parmar, P. J. 2003. Loss of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari in Indian desert. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 77-90.

[Pau03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[P02] Pickford, M. 2002. Early Miocene grassland ecosystem at Bukwa, Mount Elgon, Uganda. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 213-219.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155-165.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds – a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537-543.

[SM90] Smith, G. T., & S. R. Morton. 1990. Responses by scorpions to fire-initiates succession in arid Australian spinifex grasslands. Journal of Arachnology 18: 241-244.

[W01] Walter, D. E. 2001. Achilles and the mite: Zeno’s paradox and rainforest mite diversity. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 113-120. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Galumnellidae

Dorsum and venter of Monogalumnella neotricha, from Balogh & Balogh (1992 vol. 2).


Belongs within: Circumdehiscentiae.

The Galumnellidae are a group of galumnoid oribatid mites with slender chelicerae and an acuminate rostrum. The notogaster of galumnellids is commonly sculptured, though it is is smooth in Galumnopsis sensu stricto (Balogh & Balogh 1992).

Characters (from Balogh & Balogh 1992): Chelicerae peloptoid; rostrum acuminate. Prodorsum without true projecting lamellae, only with sclerotised lines on surface. Pteromorphae large, auriculate, movable (hinged).

<==Galumnellidae
    |--Monogalumnella Mahunka 1986 S04
    |    `--*M. neotricha Mahunka 1986 S04
    |--Iberogalumnella Arillo & Subías 1993 S04
    |    `--*I. alandalusica Arillo & Subías 1993 S04
    |--Trypogalumnella Mahunka 1995 S04
    |    |--*T. poronota Mahunka 1995 S04
    |    `--T. densoporosa Mahunka 1995 S04
    |--Galumnopsis Grandjean 1931 S04
    |    |--G. (Galumnopsis) S04
    |    |    |--*G. (G.) holoscripta Grandjean 1931 S04
    |    |    |--G. (G.) clavata Mahunka 1983 S04
    |    |    |--G. (G.) longisetus Mahunka 1983 S04
    |    |    |--G. (G.) rostrata Balogh 1962 S04
    |    |    |--G. (G.) ruginervis Balogh 1962 S04
    |    |    |--G. (G.) sagitta Balogh 1970 S04
    |    |    |--G. (G.) secunda (Sellnick 1923) [=Galumnella secunda] S04
    |    |    `--G. (G.) sellnicki Balogh 1960 S04
    |    `--G. (Porogalumnella Balogh 1968) S04
    |         |--G. (*P.) quadriporosa (Balogh 1968) [=*Porogalumnella quadriporosa] S04
    |         |--G. (P.) africana (Mahunka 1978) [=Porogalumnella africana] S04
    |         |--G. (P.) pulchella (Aoki & Hu 1993) [=Porogalumnella pulchella] S04
    |         |--G. (P.) reducta (Mahunka 1995) [=Porogalumnella reducta] S04
    |         `--G. (P.) setosa (Balakrishnan & Haq 1982) [=Porogalumnella setosa] S04
    `--Galumnella Berlese 1916 S04
         |  i. s.: G. indica Balakrishnan 1989 H01
         |--G. (Galumnella) S04
         |    |--*G. (G.) paradoxa Berlese 1916 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) apiculata Mahunka 1992 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) areolata Balogh 1960 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) cellularis Balogh & Mahunka 1967 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) geographica Mahunka 1995 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) nipponica Suzuki & Aoki 1970 [incl. G. angustifrons Aoki 1970] S04
         |    |--G. (G.) pauliani Balogh 1961 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) pilosa Engelbrecht 1972 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) punctipennis Balogh 1960 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) rugosa Balogh 1960 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) rugosula Balogh 1960 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) subareolata Mahunka 1969 S04
         |    |--G. (G.) tanzanica Mahunka 1984 S04
         |    `--G. (G.) woschitzi Balogh 1970 S04
         `--G. (Bigalumnella Mahunka 1994) S04
              `--G. (*B.) csavasorum (Mahunka 1994) [=*Bigalumnella csavasorum] S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Balogh, J., & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 1. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[H01] Haq, M. A. 2001. Potential oribatid mite vectors of cestode parasites in Kerala, India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 569–575. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

Lithocyclia

Cannartus tubarius, from here.


Belongs within: Corticata.

The Lithocyclia lineage of radiolarians originated in the middle Eocene with discoidal forms (Lithocyclia) that later evoleved into ellipsoidal forms (Cannartus and Ommatartus).

Characters (from Sanfilippo & Riedel 1980, as Coccodiscidae): Discoidal forms consisting of a lenticular cortical shell enclosing a small single or double medullary shell, and surrounded by an equatorial zone of spongy or concentrically-chambered structure, OR forms with ellipsoidal cortical shell, usually equatorially constricted and enclosing a single or double medullary shell, the opposite poles of the shell generally bearing spongy columns and/or single or multiple latticed caps.

Lithocyclia
    |--L. ocellus P98
    `--+--L. aristotelis P98
       `--+--L. angusta P98
          `--Cannartus P98
               |--C. tubarius P98
               `--+--C. violina P98
                  `--+--C. mammiferus P98
                     `--+--C. laticonus P98
                        |--+--‘Ommatartus’ hughesi P98
                        |  `--C. petterssoni P98
                        `--Ommatartus P98
                             |--O. antepenultimus P98
                             `--+--O. penultimus P98
                                `--+--O. avitus P98
                                   `--O. tetrathalamus P98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

Sanfilippo, A., & W. Riedel. 1980. A revised generic and suprageneric classification of the artiscins (Radiolaria). Journal of Paleontology 54 (5): 1008-1011.

Psammonobiotidae

Campascus minutus, from here.


Belongs within: Thecofilosea.

The Psammonobiotidae is a family of shelled amoeboids that live in the interstitial habitat between sand grains. Most genera in the family are marine, though the majority of Campascus species inhabit fresh water (Nicholls 2003).

Characters (from Nicholls 2003): Test covered with irregularly-shaped, flat particles, apparently of exogenous origin. Flared collar present surrounding oral aperture.

Psammonobiotidae
    |--Edaphonobiotus N03
    |--Alepiella Golemansky 1970 N03, G86
    |    `--A. tricornuta Golemansky 1970 G86
    |--Chardezia Golemansky 1970 G86
    |    `--C. caudata Golemansky 1970 G86
    |--Corythionelloides Sudzuki 1979 G86
    |    `--C. fumiana Sudzuki 1979 G86
    |--Micropsammella Golemansky 1970 N03, G86
    |    |--M. minima Chardez & Thomas 1980 G86
    |    `--M. retorta Golemansky 1970 [incl. M. retorta var. japonica Sudzuki 1979] G86
    |--Psammonobiotus Golemansky 1967 G86
    |    |--P. balticus Golemansky 1973 G86
    |    |--P. communis Golemansky 1967 G86
    |    |--P. golemanskyi Chardez 1971 G86
    |    |--P. linearis Golemansky 1970 G86
    |    |--P. minutus Golemansky 1970 G86
    |    |--P. plana Chardez 1971 G86
    |    `--P. septentrionalis Chardez 1977 G86
    `--Campascus Leidy 1877 N03
         |--*C. cornutus Leidy 1877 N03
         |--C. bidens Krascheninnikov 1923 N03
         |--C. cyphoderiformis Chardez & Gaspar 1984 N03
         |--C. dentatus Edmondson & Kingman 1913 N03
         |--C. interstitialis Golemansky 1981 N03
         |--C. minutus Penard 1899 N03
         |--C. simcoei Nicholls 2003 N03
         |--C. triqueter Penard 1891 N03
         `--C. vulgaris Valkanov 1936 N03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G86] Golemansky, V. G. 1986. Rhizopoda: Testacea. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 5-16. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[N03] Nicholls, K. H. 2003. Form variation in Campascus minutus and a description of Campascus simcoei sp. n. (Testaceafilosea, Psammonobiotidae). European Journal of Protistology 39 (1): 103-112.

Palaeoscenidiidae

Palaeoephippium bifurcum, from here.


Belongs within: Radiozoa.

The Palaeoscenidiidae are a family of radiolarians known from the Ordovician to the Jurassic.

Characters (from MacDonald 2004): Five or more rays from ends of median bar or point center, separated into apical and basal hemispheres, may be rays between hemispheres. With or without shell, formed by branching of basal rays, less commonly by all rays.

Palaeoscenidiidae [Entactinaria]
    |--Palaeoscenidium Deflandre 1953 M04
    |--Palaeotrifidus ballator Renz 1990 M04
    |--Fukujius yamakoshii Furutani 1990 M04
    |--Palaeotripus Goodbody 1986 M04
    |    `--P. sexabrachiatus Renz 1990 M04
    |--Palaeopyramidium Goodbody 1986 M04
    |    `--*P. spinosum Goodbody 1986 M04
    |--Holdsworthum Furutani 1990 M04
    |    `--*H. japonicus Furutani 1990 M04
    |--Protoentactinia Kozur, Mostler & Repetski 1996 (see below for synonymy) M04
    |    |--*P. gracilispinosa Kozur, Mostler & Repetski 1996 M04
    |    `--P. tricorne (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoephippium tricorne] M04
    |--Goodbodium Furutani 1990 M04
    |    |--*G. flammatum (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoscenidium flammatum; incl. G. elegans Furutani 1990] M04
    |    |--G. nishiyamai Furutani 1990 M04
    |    `--G. rarispinosum (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoscenidium rarispinosum] M04
    |--Insolitignum MacDonald 1999 M04
    |    |--*I. dissimile (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoephippium dissimile; incl. I. peraniuma MacDonald 1999] M04
    |    |--I. cancellatum (Goodbody 1986) (see below for synonymy) M04
    |    `--I. vivanima MacDonald 1999 M04
    |--Palaeodecaradium Goodbody 1986 M04
    |    |--*P. umbelliforme Goodbody 1986 M04
    |    |--P. apertum (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoscenidium apertum; incl. Palaeotripus nudus Goodbody 1986] M04
    |    `--P. gordoni MacDonald 2004 M04
    `--Palaeoephippium Goodbody 1986 M04
         |--*P. bifurcum Goodbody 1986 [incl. P. aranea Goodbody 1986] M04
         |--P. echinatum Goodbody 1986 M04
         |--‘Palaeotripus’ impariramosus Goodbody 1986 M04
         |--P. multiramosum Goodbody 1986 M04
         |--P. octoramosum Renz 1990 M04
         |--P. radices Goodbody 1986 [incl. P. ramipendentes Goodbody 1986, P. reteforme Goodbody 1986] M04
         `--P. spinosum Goodbody 1986 [incl. Palaeotripus monospinosum Goodbody 1986] M04

Insolitignum cancellatum (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoscenidium cancellatum; incl. Palaeoephippium adraini MacDonald 1999, Palaeotripus cancellatus Goodbody 1986] M04

Protoentactinia Kozur, Mostler & Repetski 1996 [incl. Noblella Kozur, Mostler & Repetski 1996; Protoentactiniidae] M04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[M04] MacDonald, E. W. 2004. Palaeoscenidiidae (Radiolaria) from the Lower Silurian of the Cape Phillips Formation, Cornwallis Island, Nunavut, Canada. Journal of Paleontology 78: 257-274.

Protoplophoridae

Lateral view, dorsal view of aspis, and ventral view of hysterosoma of Prototritia (Siciliophora) sicula, from Balogh & Balogh (1992, vol. 2).


Belongs within: Enarthronota.

The Protoplophoridae are a cosmopolitan family of oribatid mites with a ptychoid body form, able to withdraw the legs and close the aspis against the notogaster and ventral region, and with the notogaster divided by three transverse sutures (Balogh & Balogh 1992). A telescoping type L scissure divides the notogaster between the c and d setal rows.

<==Protoplophoridae [Protoplophorinae]
    |--Aedoplophora Grandjean 1932 NB-P09, S04
    |    `--A. glomerata Grandjean 1932 NB-P09, S04 [=Prototritia (Prototritia) glomerata S04]
    |--Cryptoplophora Grandjean 1932 S04
    |    |--*C. abscondita Grandjean 1932 S04
    |    `--C. asiatica Gordeeva, Niemi & Petrova-Nikitina 1998 S04
    |--Protoplophora Berlese 1910 S04
    |    |--*P. palpalis Berlese 1910 [incl. P. grandjeani Bernini 1983] S04
    |    `--P. oglasicola Bernini 1983 S04
    |--Arthrhoplophora Berlese 1910 [incl. Neoprototritia Shereef 1978, Triplophora Mahunka 1977] S04
    |    |--*A. paradoxa Berlese 1910 S04
    |    |--A. vulpes Berlese 1916 [incl. A. (Triplophora) berlesei Mahunka 1977] S04
    |    `--A. zachvatkini (Shereef 1978) [=Neoprototritia zachvatkini] S04
    |--Grandjeanoplophora Balogh & Mahunka 1979 S04
    |    |--*G. (Grandjeanoplophora) mauritanica (Grandjean 1932) [=Cryptoplophora mauritanica] S04
    |    `--G. (Tauroplophora Gordeeva, Niemi & Petrova-Nikitina 1998) S04
    |         `--G. (*T.) aureonotata (Gordeeva, Niemi & Petrova-Nikitina 1998) [=Tauroplophora aureonotata] S04
    |--Hauseroplophora Mahunka 1977 S04
    |    |--*H. soniae Mahunka 1977 S04
    |    |--H. flagellata Mahunka 1987 S04
    |    `--H. phitosi Mahunka 1977 S04
    |--Bursoplophora Subías & Pérez-Íñigo 1978 [incl. Csibiplophora Mahunka 1984] S04
    |    |--*B. iberica Subías & Pérez-Íñigo 1978 S04
    |    |--B. ethiopica Mahunka 1982 S04
    |    |--B. genavensium (Mahunka 1984) [=Csibiplophora genavensium] S04
    |    |--B. insularis Kahwash, Subías & Ruiz 1989 S04
    |    |--B. madagassica Mahunka 1994 S04
    |    |--B. meridionalis Bernini 1983 S04
    |    |--B. muraiae Mahunka & Mejía-Recamier 1998 S04
    |    `--B. tyrrhenica Bernini 1983 S04
    `--Prototritia Berlese 1916 S04
         |--P. (Prototritia) S04
         |    |--*P. (P.) armadillo (Berlese 1916) S04 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--P. (P.) africana (Mahunka 1977) [=Aedoplophora africana] S04
         |    |--P. (P.) grandjeani (Mahunka 1977) [=Aedoplophora grandjeani] S04
         |    |--P. (P.) major (Jacot 1933) [=Aedoplophora major] S04
         |    `--P. (P.) palaciosi Mahunka & Mejía-Recamier 1998 S04
         `--P. (Siciliophora Bernini 1983) S04
              `--P. (*S.) sicula Bernini 1983 S04

*Prototritia (Prototritia) armadillo (Berlese 1916) S04 [=Arthrhoplophora (*P.) armadillo S04, Prothoplophora (*P.) armadillo BB92]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB92] Balogh, J. & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 1. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[NB-P09] Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 430–564. Texas Tech University Press.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

Saitoum

Latero-ventral (A), dorsal (C) and basal (B, D) views of two specimens of Saitoum ambiguum, from Dumitrica & Zügel (2003).


Belongs within: Nassellaria.

Saitoum is a genus of radiolarian found from the Jurassic to the Cretaceous. Members of this genus have a globular cephalis with a distinct apical horn, and without verticils of spines on the feet (Dumitrica & Zügel 2003).

Saitoum Pessagno 1977 DZ03
    |--*S. pagei Pessagno 1977 DZ03
    |--S. ambiguum Dumitrica & Zügel 2003 DZ03
    |--S. bicorniculatum Dumitrica & Zügel 2003 DZ03
    |--S. curtipes Dumitrica & Zügel 2003 DZ03
    |--S. delicatum Dumitrica & Zügel 2003 DZ03
    |--S. dercourti Widz & de Wever 1993 DZ03
    |--S. differtum Dumitrica & Zügel 2003 DZ03
    |--S. elegans de Wever 1981 DZ03
    |--S. kapewinteri Dumitrica & Zügel 2003 DZ03
    |--S. labeosum Dumitrica & Zügel 2003 DZ03
    |--S. levium de Wever 1981 DZ03
    |--S. macilentum Dumitrica & Zügel 2003 DZ03
    |--S. reticulatum Dumitrica & Zügel 2003 DZ03
    `--S. virgulispina Dumitrica & Zügel 2003 DZ03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DZ03] Dumitrica, P., & P. Zügel. 2003. Lower Tithonian mono- and dicyrtid Nassellaria (Radiolaria) from the Solnhofen area (southern Germany). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 5-72.

Anaphothrips

Anaphothrips sudanensis, from here.


Belongs within: Thripini.

Anaphothrips is a cosmopolitan genus of thrips associated with plant leaves, with recorded hosts including Poales, Asparagales, Lamiales, Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae (Mound & Masumoto 2009).

Characters (from Mound & Masumoto 2009): Apterous, micropterous or macropterous; antennae 8- or 9-segmented, sensorium on III forked (simple in some species), on IV forked; III–VI usually with microtrichia present, often annulate; segment I without dorso-apical setae. Head often slightly projecting in front of eyes; 3 pairs of ocellar setae present; 3 or 4 pairs of postocular setae; eyes large, with or without 6 pigmented facets; maxillary palps 3-segmented, mouth cone relatively long, often slender and pointed at apex. Pronotum with no long setae (one species with posteromarginal S2 longer than remaining setae); ferna usually entire; basantra without setae. Mesonotal campaniform sensilla usually present but often small and inconspicuous. Metascutum with reticulate sculpture. Metapre-episternum usually weakly developed. Mesothoracic sternopleural sutures complete, furca with spinula; metathoracic furca without spinula. Tarsi 2-segmented. Fore wing with setae short, first vein with setal row irregularly spaced, second vein with many setae irregularly spaced; marginal cilia wavy; clavus with 4–9 marginal but no discal setae. Abdominal tergites and sternites without posteromarginal craspeda; tergites without lateral ctenidia, with median setae rarely close together, campaniform sensilla far from posterior margin; VI–VII usually with setae S3 reduced and much smaller than S4; setae on posterior tergites not elongate; tergite IX with two pairs of campaniform sensilla, mid-dorsal setae short and arising laterally; tergite X with dorsal split in distal half; sternites without discal setae; sternites III–VII with 3 pairs of marginal setae, median pair on VII ahead of posterior margin. Males (where known) with pore plates on sternite III or III–VII behind antecostal line, often large and C-shaped, but sometimes small, not C-shaped, or absent; tergite IX with or without dorsal paired thorn-like setae.

Anaphothrips Uzel 1895 [incl. Nakaharathrips Retana-Salazar 2007, Neophysopus Schmutz 1913] MM09
    |--*A. obscurus (Müller 1776) MM09 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. ambiguus (Girault 1927) [=Neophysopus ambiguus] MM09
    |--A. aptilotus Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. astrolomi Pitkin 1978 MM09
    |--A. atriplicis Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. augustae Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--‘Neophysopus’ aureolus Girault 1928 G28
    |--A. barringtoni Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. barrowi Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. callani Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. carlylei Girault 1928 MM09
    |--A. cecili Girault 1928 [incl. Hemianaphothrips (Anaphothrips) concinnus Morison 1931] MM09
    |--A. chortinus Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. cobari Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. cucurbiti Pitkin 1978 MM09
    |--A. dalbyi Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. desleyae Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. dubius (Girault 1926) MM09 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. epacrida Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. eremophilae Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. exocarpi Pitkin 1978 MM09
    |--A. exocarpoides Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--‘Neophysopus’ fragariae Girault 1927 G27
    |--A. geijerae Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. geleznowiae Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. gillespiei Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. glenysae Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. incertus (Girault 1929) [=Limothrips incertus] MM09
    |--‘Neophysopus’ io Girault 1927 G27
    |--A. keatsi (Girault 1926) [=Heterothrips keatsi] MM09
    |--A. monga Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. moundi Pitkin 1978 MM09
    |--A. newmani Moulton in Moulton & Newman 1935 MM09
    |--A. nimbus Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. occidentalis Pitkin 1978 MM09
    |--A. orchis Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. parsonsiae Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. pulteneae Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. secticornis PL12
    |--A. sudanensis Trybom 1911 MM96 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. swezeyi Moulton 1928 MM09
    |--A. varii Moulton in Moulton & Newman 1935 MM09
    |--A. walchae Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. westringiae Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. whyalla Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09
    |--A. woodi Pitkin 1978 MM09
    `--A. yalgooi Mound & Masumoto 2009 MM09

Anaphothrips dubius (Girault 1926) MM09 [=Heterothrips dubius MM09; incl. A. cinctiguttatus Girault 1927 MM09, A. regalis Girault 1928 MM09, Physothrips regalis GM79, Hemianaphothrips (Anaphothrips) tersus Morison 1930 MM09]

*Anaphothrips obscurus (Müller 1776) MM09 [=Thrips obscura MM09; incl. A. sexguttus Girault 1928 MM09, A. striatus (Osborn 1883) MM09, GM79, A. virgo MM96]

Anaphothrips sudanensis Trybom 1911 MM96 [=*Nakaharathrips sudanensis MM09; incl. A. bicinctus MM96, A. bicolor MM96, *Neophysopus medioflavus MM09]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. Some new wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 208-210).

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. Some Insecta and a new All Highness. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 225-228).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[MM09] Mound, L. A. & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1-76.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623-8628.

Aphidomorpha

Wing of the stem-aphid Creaphis theodora, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).


Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.
Contains: Coccinea, Aphidoidea.

The clade Aphidomorpha unites the aphids (Aphidoidea) and scale insects (Coccinea). Members of this group have polymorphic individuals within a population, reduced or absent male genitalia, and winged morphs with a composite vein in the forewing comprised of R and the bases of M and Cu (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The fossil record of the Aphidomorpha goes back to the Triassic; the Late Triassic Creaphis theodora is a stem-aphid differing from later forms in having forewings with a long stem to vein Cu, and long straight Rs and M veins (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The Naibiidae are a group of superficially aphid-like bugs known from the mid-Triassic to the early Palaeocene. Though lacking evidence of sexual dimorphism, they share a number of features with scale insects such as a dorsoventrally flattened head and few, widely-spaced ommatidia, and are likely stem-group relatives of the Coccinea (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002).

<==Aphidomorpha [Palaeoaphidoidea]
    |  i. s.: Palaeoaphididae SP02
    |         Triassoaphididae SP02
    |         Szelegiewiczia [Shaposhnikoviidae, Szelegiewicziinae] SP02
    |           `--S. maculata SP02
    |         Essigella californica SC04
    |--Coccomorpha SP02
    |    |--Naibiidae [Naibioidea] SP02
    |    `--Coccinea GE05
    `--+--Creaphis [Creaphididae] GE05
       |    `--C. theodora GE05
       `--Aphidoidea GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 143-157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SC04] Stone, C., & N. C. Coops. 2004. Assessment and monitoring of damage from insects in Australian eucalypt forests and commercial plantations. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 283-292.

Aleyrodidae

Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi adult and nymphs, from Bayer Pflanzenschutz Archive.


Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.

The Aleyrodidae, whiteflies, are small plant-sucking bugs with immobile nymphs, some species of which are notorious crop pests.

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Adults usually covered with a mealy, flocculent wax, secreted by pairs of large glands on several abdominal sternites, spread over body using combs of hairs on hind legs. Antennae reduced to six or fewer segments; rostrum with four segments, segment two telescoping into segment one. Wing venation extremely reduced. First instar mobile; subsequent instars sedentary, with atrophied appendages; vasiform orifice present at tip of abdomen for expelling honeydew: anus opening into deep median fold in tergite eight, with lingula flicking away droplets forming therein; quiescent prepupal and pupal instars present prior to adulthood.

<==Aleyrodidae [Aleyrodoidea, Aleyrodomorpha]
    |  i. s.: Dialeurodes S35
    |           |--D. citri S35
    |           `--D. pallidus G01
    |         Trialeurodes vaporariorum S35
    |         Parabemisia myricae MHG04
    |--Heidea cretacica GE05
    |--Bernaea [Bernaeinae] GE05
    |    `--B. neocomica GE05
    `--+--Siphonaleyrodinae S35
       |--Aleurodicinae S35
       |    |--Radialeurodicus Bondar 1923 S35
       |    |--Udamoselis Enderlein 1909 [Udamoselinae] S35
       |    |--Synaleurodicus Solomon 1935 S35
       |    |    `--*S. hakeae Solomon 1935 S35
       |    `--Aleurodicus S35
       |         |--‘Aleyrodes’ albofloccosa (Froggatt 1918) S35
       |         `--A. dispersus ZS10
       `--Aleyrodinae S35
            |--Tetraleurodes stypheliae (Maskell 1896) [=Aleyrodes stypheliae] S35
            |--Zaphanera Corbett 1926 S35
            |--Aleurochiton forbesii S35
            |--Aleyrodes S35
            |    |--A. atriplex (Froggatt 1911) S35
            |    `--A. brassicae I92
            |--Aleurolobus S35
            |    |--A. barodensis MHG04
            |    `--A. niger (Maskell 1896) [=Aleyrodes niger] S35
            |--Bemisia S35
            |    |--B. argentifolii F04
            |    |--B. decipiens (Maskell 1896) [=Aleyrodes decipiens] S35
            |    `--B. tabaci F04
            |--Aleurotrachelus Quaintance & Baker 1914 S35
            |    |--A. croceatus (Maskell 1896) [=Aleyrodes croceatus] S35
            |    |--A. dryandrae Solomon 1935 S35
            |    `--A. limbatus (Maskell 1896) [=Aleyrodes limbatus] S35
            `--Aleurocanthus S35
                 |--A. banksiae (Maskell 1896) [=Aleyrodes banksiae] S35
                 |--A. hirsutus (Maskell 1896) [=Aleyrodes hirsutus] S35
                 |--A. rugosa G01
                 |--A. t-signatus (Maskell 1896) [=Aleyrodes t-signatus] S35
                 `--A. woglumi MHG04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F04] Ferrar, P. 2004. Australian entomology: isolated, or in touch with the rest of the world? Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 329-333.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 484-497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318-328.

[S35] Solomon, M. E. 1935. On a new genus and two new species of Western Australian Aleyrodidae. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 21: 75-91.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Columbidae

Great cuckoo dove Reinwardtoena reinwardtsi, photographed by Rob Hutchinson.


Belongs within: Neoaves.
Contains: Columbigallina, Aplopelia, Leptotila, Zenaida, Geotrygon, Treroninae, Columbina, Patagioenas, Columba, Streptopelia, Stigmatopelia, Macropygia.

The Columbidae include the pigeons and doves, a distinctive family of mostly herbivorous, strong-flying birds found worldwide. Earlier authors mostly divided this family between the Treroninae for the palaeotropical fruit pigeons and Columbinae for the remaining 'true pigeons', with a few more small subfamilies for certain distinctive taxa, but this scheme has not been supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Shapiro et al. 2002; Jetz et al. 2012). Instead, a clade of New World taxa including the genera Geotrygon (quail-doves), Leptotila and Zenaida (mourning doves) may form one of the basal divisions within the columbids. Its sister-clade, containing the remaining species, is most diverse in the Old World, though it does include the New World ground doves (Claravis, Columbina and related genera).

Characters (from Austin 1961): Stout-bodied, neck rather short, head small. Bill short, slender, rounded, usually thickening toward tip and thinner in the middle; nostrils emerging through fleshy cere at base of bill. Plumage a thick, heavy coat of strong-shafted feathers, loosely attached to thin skin so as to drop out easily.

<==Columbidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--+--+--‘Geotrygon’ purpurata BKB15
    |  |  |  `--‘Geotrygon’ saphirina BKB15
    |  |  `--+--‘Geotrygon’ versicolor BKB15
    |  |     `--+--‘Geotrygon’ montana BKB15
    |  |        |    |--G. m. montana MS55
    |  |        |    `--G. m. martinica MS55
    |  |        `--‘Geotrygon’ violacea BKB15
    |  `--+--+--‘Geotrygon’ veraguensis BKB15
    |     |  `--Leptotila SS02
    |     `--+--Zenaida SS02
    |        `--Geotrygon SS02
    `--+--+--Treroninae SS02
       |  `--+--Claravis Oberholser 1899 JT12, B94 [incl. Peristera Swainson 1827 B94]
       |     |    |--C. geoffroyi HSS13
       |     |    |--C. godefrida JT12
       |     |    |--C. mondetoura JT12
       |     |    |--C. pretiosa JT12
       |     |    |--‘Peristera’ principalis Hartlaub in Dohrn 1866 D66
       |     |    |--‘Peristera’ simplex D66
       |     |    `--‘Peristera’ tympanistria S66
       |     `--+--Uropelia campestris JT12
       |        `--+--Columbina SS02
       |           `--Metriopelia JT12
       |                |--M. aymara JT12
       |                `--+--M. melanoptera JT12
       |                   `--+--M. ceciliae JT12 [=Gymnopelia ceciliae T62]
       |                      |    |--M. c. ceciliae T62
       |                      |    |--M. c. obsoleta T62
       |                      |    `--M. c. zimmeri [=Gymnopelia ceciliae zimmeri] T62
       |                      `--M. morenoi JT12
       `--+--Ectopistes Swainson 1827 BKB15, B94 [Ectopistinae]
          |    `--E. migratorius SS02
          `--+--+--Patagioenas BKB15
             |  `--+--Columba SS02
             |     `--+--Streptopelia SS02
             |        `--+--Stigmatopelia JT12
             |           `--Nesoenas SS02
             |                |--N. mayeri SS02
             |                `--N. picturata JT12 [=Streptopelia picturata BKB15, Turtur picturatus S66]
             |                     |--N. p. picturata L81
             |                     |--‘Streptopelia’ p. aldabrana L81
             |                     |--‘Streptopelia’ p. chuni L81
             |                     |--‘Streptopelia’ p. comorensis L81
             |                     |--‘Streptopelia’ p. rostrata L81
             |                     `--‘Streptopelia’ p. saturata L81
             `--+--Macropygia SS02
                `--Reinwardtoena JT12
                     |--R. browni T62
                     |--R. crassirostris JT12
                     `--R. reinwardtsi T62
                          |--R. r. reinwardtsi T62
                          |--R. r. albida T62
                          |--R. r. brevis T62
                          `--R. r. griseotincta T62

Columbidae incertae sedis:
  Zenaidura T62
    |--Z. auriculata T62
    |    |--Z. a. auriculata T62
    |    `--Z. a. stenura T62
    `--Z. macroura T62
         |--Z. m. macroura T62
         |--Z. m. carolinensis T62
         `--Z. m. marginella T62
  Columbigallina T62
  Tympanistria tympanistria T62
    |--T. t. tympanistria T62
    `--T. t. fraseri T62
  Oreopeleia T62
    |--O. montana S18
    `--O. mystacea T62
         |--O. m. mystacea T62
         `--O. m. sabae T62
  Aplopelia T62
  Coryphoenas T62
  Nesopelia T62
  Oxypelia T62
  Lophophaps ferruginea Gould 1865 WS48 (see below for synonymy)
  Osculatia T62
  Melopelia asiatica FS55
  Starnoenas Bonaparte 1838 [Starnoenadinae] B94
    `--S. cyanocephala L81
  Erythroenas pulcherrima B66
  Scardafella SS02
    |--S. inca L81
    `--S. squammata (Lesson 1831) ME04
  Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos HSS13
  Rupephaps Worthy, Hand et al. 2009 CC10
    `--*R. taketake Worthy, Hand et al. 2009 CC10

Columbidae [Claravinae, Columbae, Columbiformes, Columbinae, Columbini, Palumbinae, Peristeridae, Peristerinae, Turturidae]

Lophophaps ferruginea Gould 1865 WS48 [=Geophaps plumifera ferruginea M03; incl. L. ferruginea mungi Mathews 1912 WS48]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B66] Bartlett, A. D. 1866. Notes on the breeding of several species of birds in the Society's gardens during the year 1865. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 76–79.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324–332.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[ME04] Mayr, G., & P. G. P. Ericson. 2004. Evidence for a sister group relationship between the Madagascan mesites (Mesitornithidae) and the cuckoos (Cuculidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 84 (1–2): 1–17.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[SS02] Shapiro, B., D. Sibthorpe, A. Rambaut, J. Austin, G. M. Wragg, O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, P. L. M. Lee & A. Cooper. 2002. Flight of the dodo. Nature 295: 1683.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Caprimulgidae

Scissor-tailed nightjar Hydropsalis torquata, photographed by Horacio Luna


Belongs within: Cypselomorphae.
Contains: Caprimulgus, Chordeiles.

The Caprimulgidae include the nightjars, a cosmopolitan group of nocturnal insectivorous birds. Nightjars are cryptically coloured in mottled brown.

Characters (from The Internet Bird Collection; Sclater 1866): Small to large nocturnal birds, with variegated plumage, large mouth, long wings and tail, and short legs. Claw of middle toe pectinated; outer toe with four phalanges. Sternum with one pair of shallow posterior fissures. Eggs coloured.

<==Caprimulgidae [Aereae, Caprimulginae, Glabrirostres, Setirostres, Terricolae]
    |--Eurostopodus Gould 1838 [Eurostopodidae]
    |    |  i. s.: E. archboldi JT12
    |    |         E. diabolicus FP64
    |    |         E. guttatus (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) [=Caprimulgus guttatus] WS48
    |    |         E. temminckii H03
    |    |--E. papuensis JT12
    |    `--+--E. argus JT12
    |       `--E. mystacalis JT12
    `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ enarratus JT12
       `--+--‘Eurostopodus’ macrotis JT12
          `--+--+--Caprimulgus JT12
             |  `--Chordeiles JT12
             `--+--+--Siphonorhis JT12
                |  |    |--S. americana JT12 [=Caprimulgus americanus S66a]
                |  |    `--S. brewsteri JT12 [=S. americana brewsteri FP64]
                |  `--+--Nyctiphrynus JT12
                |     |    |--N. rosenbergi JT12
                |     |    `--+--N. mcleodii JT12
                |     |       `--+--N. ocellatus JT12
                |     |          `--N. yucatanicus JT12
                |     `--+--Phalaenoptilus nuttallii JT12
                |        `--+--+--‘Caprimulgus’ ridgwayi JT12
                |           |  `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ saturatus JT12
                |           |     `--‘Caprimulgus’ vociferus JT12 [=Antrostomus vociferus S66a]
                |           `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ salvini JT12
                |              `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ carolinensis JT12 [=Antrostomus carolinensis S66a]
                |                 `--‘Caprimulgus’ rufus JT12 [=Antrostomus rufus S66a; incl. Ca. cortopao S66a]
                `--+--Lurocalis JT12
                   |    |--L. nattereri [=Caprimulgus nattereri, Chordeiles nattereri] S66a
                   |    |--L. ruficentris JT12
                   |    `--L. semitorquatus (see below for synonymy) S66a
                   `--+--Nyctiprogne JT12
                      |    |--N. leucopyga JT12
                      |    `--N. vielliardi JT12
                      `--+--+--‘Caprimulgus’ nigrescens JT12 [=Antrostomus nigrescens S66a, Stenopsis nigrescens S66a]
                         |  `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ anthonyi JT12
                         |     `--Nyctidromus Gould 1838 JT12, B94 [Nyctidrominae]
                         |          `--N. albicollis (see below for synonymy) S66a
                         |               |--N. a. albicollis FS55
                         |               `--N. a. intercedens FS55
                         `--+--Uropsalis JT12
                            |    |--U. lyra JT12
                            |    `--U. segmentata JT12
                            `--+--+--‘Caprimulgus’ whitelyi JT12
                               |  `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ parvulus Gould 1837 JT12, S66a (see below for synonymy)
                               |     `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ longirostris JT12 (see below for synonymy)
                               |        `--Eleothreptus JT12
                               |             |--E. anomalus (Gould 1837) JT12, S66a (see below for synonymy)
                               |             `--E. candicans JT12
                               `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ maculicaudus JT12
                                  `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ cayennensis JT12
                                     `--Hydropsalis JT12
                                          |  i. s.: H. climacocerca JT12
                                          |--H. (Hydropsalis) S66a
                                          |    |--H. (H.) furcifera [=Caprimulgus furcifer] S66a
                                          |    |--H. (H.) pallescens von Pelzeln 1865 S66a
                                          |    `--H. (H.) torquata (see below for synonymy) S66a
                                          `--H. (Diplopsalis) S66a
                                               |--H. (D.) schomburgki S66a
                                               `--H. (D.) trifurcata [incl. H. climacocerca] S66a

Caprimulgidae incertae sedis:
  Lyncornis temminckii S55
  Nannochordeiles pusillus S55
    |--N. p. pusillus S55
    `--N. p. septentrionalis S55
  Semeiophorus Gould 1838 B94
    `--S. vexillarius MMJ03
  Scotornis Swainson 1837 [Scotornithinae] B94
    `--S. climacurus S55
         |--S. c. climacurus S55
         `--S. c. clarus S55
  Stenopsis S66a
    |--S. bifasciata S66b [=Caprimulgus bifasciatus S66a; incl. C. conterminus S66a, C. decussatus S66a]
    |--S. candicans [=Caprimulgus candicans; incl. C. leucurus] S66b
    |--S. cayanensis S66b [=Caprimulgus cayanensis S66a; incl. C. cayanus S66a, C. leopetes S66a]
    |--S. langsdorfi Pelzeln in Sclater 1866 S66b
    |--S. platura Pelzeln in Sclater 1866 [=Caprimulgus platurus] S66b
    `--S. ruficervix Sclater 1866 S66a
  Macropsalis Sclater 1866 S66a
    |--M. forcipata JT12 (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. lyra [=Hydropsalis (Macropsalis) lyra] S66a
    |--M. segmentata Cassin 1849 [=Hydropsalis (Macropsalis) segmentata] S66a
    `--M. ypanemae von Pelzeln 1865 [=Hydropsalis (Macropsalis) ypanemae] S66a
  Antrostomus S66a
    |--A. cubanensis Lawrence 1860 S66b
    |--A. macromystax [=Caprimulgus macromystax] S66a
    |--A. maculicaudus [=Stenopsis maculicaudus] S66b
    |--A. nuttalli [=Caprimulgus nuttalli] S66a
    |--A. ocellatus (see below for synonymy) S66a
    |--A. ornatus Sclater 1866 S66b
    |--A. rutilus S66b
    `--A. sericeocaudatus S66b

Antrostomus ocellatus [=Caprimulgus ocellatus; incl. C. brasilianus, C. brasiliensis, C. lunulatus Natt. in Sclater 1866 (n. n.)] S66a

‘Caprimulgus’ longirostris JT12 [=Antrostomus longirostris S66a, Stenopsis longirostris S66a]

‘Caprimulgus’ parvulus Gould 1837 JT12, S66a [=Antrostomus parvulus S66a; incl. C. mixtus S66a]

Eleothreptus anomalus (Gould 1837) JT12, S66a [=Amblypterus anomalus S66a, Heleothreptus anomalus S66a]

Hydropsalis (Hydropsalis) torquata [=Caprimulgus torquatus; incl. H. azarae Wagl. 1883, Psalurus macropterus, Caprimulgus psalurus, Hydropsalis psalurus] S66a

Lurocalis semitorquatus [=Caprimulgus semitorquatus, Chordeiles semitorquatus; incl. Podager gouldi] S66a

Macropsalis forcipata JT12 [=Caprimulgus forcipatus S66a, Hydropsalis (Macropsalis) forcipata S66a; incl. H. limbatus S66a, Caprimulgus megalurus Licht. in Sclater 1866 (n. n.) S66a]

Nyctidromus albicollis [=Caprimulgus albicollis; incl. N. affinis, N. americanus Cassin 1851, N. derbyanus, N. grallarius, Caprimulgus guianensis, N. guianensis] S66a

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[MMJ03] Mayr, G., A. Manegold & U. S. Johansson. 2003. Monophyletic groups within ‘higher land birds’ – comparison of morphological and molecular data. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 233-248.

[S66a] Sclater, P. L. 1866a. Notes upon the American Caprimulgidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 123-145.

[S66b] Sclater, P. L. 1866b. Additional notes on the Caprimulgidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 581-590.

[S55] Steinbacher, J. 1955. Über die Schwanzmauser der Eulen (Strigidae) und Nachtschwalben (Caprimulgidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 235-240.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.