Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola, photographed by Ingvar Torsson.

Belongs within: Charadriiformes.
Contains: Numenius, Limosa, Calidris, Tringa, Gallinago.

The Scolopacidae is a clade of wading birds including the woodcocks, snipes, sandpipers and related taxa. Most scolopacids tend to have relatively long, slender bills, and are most often coloured (at least in the non-breeding season) in variegated browns or greys. The majority of scolopacids are associated with coastal or other damp habitats, but the woodcocks Scolopax are woodland birds. One subgroup of scolopacids, the phalaropes (Phalaropodinae), have been treated as a separate family but are nested within the Scolopacidae by phylogenetic analysis (Jetz et al. 2012). Phalaropes have toes with extended lateral membranes and feed while spinning on the surface of the water to stir up small aquatic invertebrates.

See also: Name the bug #8: Prosobonia cancellata.

<==Scolopacidae [Gallinagininae, Numeniini, Scolopacinae, Scolopacoidea, Tringidae, Tringinae]
    |--+--Numenius JT12
    |  `--Bartramia Lesson 1831 non Hedw. 1801 (ICBN) JT12, B94 [Bartramiini]
    |       `--B. longicauda (Bechstein 1812) R85
    `--+--+--Limosa JT12
       |  `--Lymnocryptes Kaup 1829 JT12, M02 [Lymnocryptinae]
       |       `--L. minimus (Brünnich 1764) [=Scolopax minima] M02
       `--+--+--Calidris JT12
          |  `--Arenaria Brisson 1760 JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |--A. interpres (Linnaeus 1758) ME04 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |    |--A. i. interpres HR96
          |       |    `--A. i. morinella HR96
          |       `--A. melanocephala JT12
          `--+--+--+--Tringa JT12
             |  |  `--Actitis JT12
             |  |       |--A. balcanica Boev 1998 M02
             |  |       |--A. hypoleucos (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, R85 [=Tringa hypoleucos T89]
             |  |       `--A. macularius JT12
             |  `--+--Xenus cinereus (Gueldenstaedt 1774) JT12, R85 [=Scolopax cinerea WS48, Tringa cinereus M03]
             |     `--Phalaropodinae [Lobipodinae, Phalaridopodidae, Phalaropodidae] A61
             |          |--Steganopus tricolor JT12
             |          `--Phalaropus Brisson 1760 JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
             |               |--P. fulicarius (Linnaeus 1758) [=Tringa fulicaria] M02
             |               |--P. lobatus (Linnaeus 1758) R85
             |               `--P. tricolor HR96
             `--+--Limnodromus Wied 1833 JT12, B94 [Limnodrominae]
                |    |--L. griseus M03
                |    |--L. scolopaceus SU93
                |    `--L. semipalmatus (Blyth 1848) I92
                `--+--Gallinago JT12
                   `--Scolopax Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02
                        |--S. anthonyi SWK87
                        |--S. baranensis Jánossy 1979 M02
                        |--S. bukidnonensis JT12
                        |--S. carmesinae Seguí 1999 M02
                        |--S. celebensis SU93
                        |--S. minor JVHN90
                        |--S. mira Hartert 1916 I92
                        |--S. rochussenii SU93
                        |--S. rosenbergii JT12
                        |--S. rusticola Linnaeus 1758 [incl. S. rusticola magnus Potapova 1990] M02
                        `--S. saturata SU93

Scolopacidae incertae sedis:
  Tryngites rufescens SS66a
  Micropalama himantopus SS66a
  Philohela minor A61
  Palaeotringa FP64
  Pisobia cooperi [=Tringa cooperi] CG99
  Rhyacophilus solitarius SS66a
  Actiturus bartramius SS66b
  Elorius Milne-Edwards 1868 M02
    `--*E. paludicola Milne-Edwards 1868 M02
  Prosobonia Bonaparte 1850 [Prosoboniini] B94
    |--P. cancellata CG99
    |--P. ellisi HSS13
    `--P. leucoptera CG99

Arenaria Brisson 1760 JT12, B94 [incl. Cinclus Möhring 1752 (pre-Linnean) non Borkhausen 1797 B94, Morinella Mayer & Wolf 1810 B94, Strepsilas Illiger 1811 B94; Arenariinae, Cinclinae, Morinellinae, Strepsilinae]

Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus 1758) ME04 [=Tringa interpres WS48, Strepsilas interpres S66; incl. Arenaria interpres nova Mathews 1917 WS48]

Phalaropus Brisson 1760 JT12, M02 [=Phalaridopus Olphe-Galliard 1888 B94; incl. Lobipes Cuvier 1817]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315-338.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173-180.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[ME04] Mayr, G., & P. G. P. Ericson. 2004. Evidence for a sister group relationship between the Madagascan mesites (Mesitornithidae) and the cuckoos (Cuculidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 84 (1-2): 1-17.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[SS66a] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866a. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175-201.

[SS66b] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866b. On some additions to the catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Ucayali. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 566-567.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

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