Enarthronota

Eobrachychthonius sp., from V. Behan-Pelletier & B. Eamer.


Belongs within: Sarcoptiformes.
Contains: Liochthonius, Sellnickochthonius, Brachychthonius, Protoplophoridae, Sphaerochthoniidae, Cosmochthoniidae, Haplochthoniidae, Hypochthonioidea.

The Enarthronota are a group of oribatid mites which ancestrally have the notogaster composed of a series of two to four plates divided by transverse scissures of soft articulating cuticle, often with rows of erectile dorsal setae in the scissures (Norton 2001). This morphology has, however, been modified in some subgroups. Sclerotisation has been greatly reduced in some Enarthronota, such as the Atopochthonioidea, and the paedomorphic genus Paralycus has been so modified to the extent that earlier authors mistook it for a member of the Prostigmata or Astigmata. Many enarthronotans are parthenogenetic, with sexual reproduction being known only in the Mesoplophoridae and Protoplophoroidea (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). Enarthronotans include some of the earliest known fossil mites, with Devonacarus sellnicki and Protochthonius gilboa known from the Devonian Gilboa shales (Walter & Proctor 1999).

Within the Enarthronota, the Brachychthoniidae are a family of small mites (usually less than 250 µm long) in which the notogaster bears two type E scissures (i.e. a simple band of non-telescoping cuticle) (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009).

<==Enarthronota [Arthronota, Arthronotina, Enarthronotides]
    |  i. s.: Devonacarus sellnicki WP99
    |         Protochthonius gilboa WP99
    |--Brachychthoniidae [Brachychthonioidea] MH04
    |    |--Liochthonius S04
    |    |--Sellnickochthonius S04
    |    |--Brachychthonius S04
    |    |--Papillochthonius Gil-Martín, Subías & Arillo 1992 S04
    |    |    `--*P. astatus Gil-Martín, Subías & Arillo 1992 S04
    |    |--Neobrachychthonius Moritz 1976 S04
    |    |    |--*N. marginatus (Forsslund 1942) [=Brachychthonius marginatus; incl. B. neosimplex Schweizer 1956] S04
    |    |    `--N. magnus Moritz 1976 [=N. marginatus magnus] S04
    |    |--Synchthonius Hammen 1952 S04
    |    |    |--S. crenulatus (Jacot 1938) [=Brachychochthonius crenulatus; incl. *S. boschmai Hammen 1952] S04
    |    |    `--S. elegans Forsslund 1957 S04
    |    |--Poecilochthonius Balogh 1943 S04 [=Poecilochtonius CH98]
    |    |    |--*P. italicus (Berlese 1910) [=Brachychthonius brevis italicus] S04
    |    |    |--P. parallelus (Womersley 1945) [=Brachychthonius parallelus] S04
    |    |    `--P. spiciger (Berlese 1910) (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |--Neoliochthonius Lee 1982 (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |    |--*N. piliforus (Frosslund 1942) [=Brachychthonius piliforus] S04
    |    |    |--N. globuliferus (Strenzke 1951) S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--N. occultus (Niedbala 1971) [=Liochthonius occultus] S04
    |    |--Mixochthonius Niedbala 1972 S04
    |    |    |--*M. pilosetosus (Forsslund 1942) [=Brachychthonius pilosetosus] S04
    |    |    |--M. concavus (Chinone 1974) [=Liochthonius concavus] S04
    |    |    |--M. laticeps NP91
    |    |    `--M. moritzi Evison 1981 S04
    |    |--Verachthonius Moritz 1976 S04
    |    |    |--*V. laticeps (Strenzke 1951) [=Brachychthonius laticeps] S04
    |    |    |--V. congruus Moritz 1976 S04
    |    |    |--V. diversus Moritz 1976 S04
    |    |    |--V. montanus (Hammer 1952) [=Eobrachychthonius montanus] S04
    |    |    |--V. moritzi Lee 1982 S04
    |    |    `--V. pseudolaticeps (Subías 1977) [=Liochthonius pseudolaticeps] S04
    |    `--Eobrachychthonius Jacot 1936 S04
    |         |--E. latior (Berlese 1910) [=Brachychthonius latior] S04
    |         |    |--E. l. latior (see below for synonymy) S04
    |         |    `--E. l. strictior Lombardini 1963 (n. d.) S04
    |         |--E. borealis Forsslund 1942 S04
    |         |--E. longisetosus Csiszár 1960 S04
    |         |-¬-E. mooseri (Hammen 1951) [=Brachychthonius mooseri] S04
    |         |--E. oudemansi Hammer 1952 [incl. E. argentinensis Hammer 1958] S04
    |         |--E. setus Sergienko 1992 S04
    |         `--E. similis Mahunka 1979 S04
    `--+--+--Atopochthonioidea MH04
       |  |    |--Phyllochthonius Travé 1967 [Phyllochthoniidae] S04
       |  |    |    `--*P. aoutii Travé 1967 S04
       |  |    |--Pterochthonius Berlese 1913 [Pterochthoniidae, Pterochthonioidea] S04
       |  |    |    `--*P. angelus (Berlese 1910) [=Cosmochthonius angelus] S04
       |  |    `--Atopochthonius Grandjean 1949 [Atopochthoniidae] S04
       |  |         |--*A. artiodactylus Grandjean 1949 S04
       |  |         `--A. maimaensis Grishina 1971 S04
       |  `--Protoplophoroidea [Cosmochthonioidea] MH04
       |       |--+--Protoplophoridae N01
       |       |  `--Sphaerochthoniidae N01
       |       `--+--Cosmochthoniidae N01
       |          `--+--Haplochthoniidae N01
       |             `--Paralycus Womersley 1944 S04 (see below for synonymy)
       |                  |--*P. pyrigerus (Berlese 1905) S04 [=Alicus pyrigerus CH98, Alycus pyrigerus S04]
       |                  |--P. lavoipierrei (Price 1973) [=Pediculochelus lavoipierrei] S04
       |                  |--P. parvulus (Price 1973) [=Pediculochelus parvulus] S04
       |                  `--P. raulti (Lavoipierre 1946) S04 [=*Pediculochelus raulti CH98]
       `--Heterochthonioidea NB-P09
            |  i. s.: Arborichthonius Norton 1982 S04 [Arborichthoniidae NB-P09]
            |           `--*A. styosetosus Norton 1982 S04
            |--Trichthoniidae NB-P09
            |    |--Trichthonius Hammer 1961 S04
            |    |    `--*T. pulcherrimus (Hammer 1958) [=Cosmochthonius pulcherrimus] S04
            |    `--Gozmanyina Balogh & Mahunka 1983 NB-P09, S04 [incl. Marshallia Gordeeva 1980 non Zittel 1887 S04]
            |         |--*G. majestus (Marshall & Reeves 1971) [=Trichthonius majestus] S04
            |         |--G. golosovae (Gordeeva 1980) [=Marshallia golosovae] S04
            |         `--G. pehuen Martínez & Casanueva 1996 S04
            `--+--Hypochthonioidea MH04
               `--Heterochthoniidae MH04
                    |--Neochthonius Karppinen 1984 S04
                    |    `--*N. latisetosus Golosova & Karppinen 1984 S04
                    |--Ovochthonius Rjabinin 1977 S04
                    |    `--*O. rossicus Rjabinin 1977 S04
                    `--Heterochthonius Berlese 1910 S04
                         |--*H. gibbus (Berlese 1910) [=Cosmochthonius (Heterochthonius) gibbus] S04
                         |--H. byzovae Krivolutsky 1977 S04
                         |--H. caucasicus Krivolutsky 1977 S04
                         `--H. monocerus Pankov 2002 S04

Eobrachychthonius latior latior (Berlese 1910) [incl. Brachychthonius brevis glabra Thor 1930, E. grandis Sellnick 1944, *E. sexnotatus Jacot 1936] S04

Neoliochthonius Lee 1982 [incl. Moritzichthonius Pereda & Iturrondobeitia 1990, Paraliochthonius Moritz 1976 non Beier 1956] S04

Neoliochthonius globuliferus (Strenzke 1951) S04 [=Brachychthonius globuliferus S04, Paraliochthonius globuliferus BB92b]

Paralycus Womersley 1944 S04 [incl. Pediculochelus Lavoipierre 1946 S04; Pediculochelidae N01]

Poecilochthonius spiciger (Berlese 1910) [=Brachychthonius brevis spiciger; incl. B. rapoporti Balogh & Mahunka 1968] S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB92] Balogh, J. & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 2. Plates. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[CH98] Colloff, M. J. & R. B. Halliday. 1998. Oribatid Mites: A catalogue of Australian genera and species. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[MH04] Maraun, M., M. Heethoff, K. Schneider, S. Scheu, G. Weigmann, J. Cianciolo, R. H. Thomas & R. A. Norton. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari): evidence for multiple radiations of parthenogenetic lineages. Experimental and Applied Acarology 33 (3): 183–201.

[N01] Norton, R. A. 2001. Systematic relationships of Nothrolohmanniidae, and the evolutionary plasticity of body form in Enarthronota (Acari: Oribatida). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 58–75. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[NB-P09] Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 430–564. Texas Tech University Press.

[NP91] Norton, R. A., & S. C. Palmer. 1991. The distribution, mechanisms and evolutionary significance of parthenogenesis in oribatid mites. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies, pp. 107–136. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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