Small buttonquail Turnix sylvaticus adult and chick, photographed by Udayan Rao Pawar.

Belongs within: Charadriiformes.

The Turnicidae include the buttonquails, plump-bodied terrestrial birds found in tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World. Buttonquails differ from true quails, to which they are not closely related, in the absence of a hind toe.

<==Turnicidae [Hemipodiidae, Ortygidae, Turnices]
    |--Ortyxelos Vieillot 1825 [Ortyxelidae] L98
    |    `--O. meiffrenii JT12
    `--Turnix Bonnaterre 1791 L98 [incl. Hemipodius Temminck 1815 B94, Ortygis Illiger 1811 B94]
         |  i. s.: ‘Hemipodius’ andalusicus S66
         |         T. castanotus (Gould 1839) JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
         |         T. everetti JT12
         |         T. maculosis (Temminck 1815) JT12, WS48 [=Hemipodius maculosus WS48]
         |           |--T. m. maculosis WS48
         |           `--T. m. pseustes Mathews 1912 WS48
         |         T. melanogaster M03
         |         T. nigricollis L98
         |         T. ocellatus JT12
         |         T. olivii M03
         |         T. velox (Gould 1841) (see below for synonymy) WS48
         |         T. worcesteri JT12
         |--+--T. suscitator JT12
         |  `--T. tanki JT12
         `--+--+--T. hottentottus JT12
            |  `--T. sylvaticus JT12
            `--+--T. pyrrhothorax (Gould 1841) JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
               `--T. varius (Latham 1801) JT12, ME04 [=Perdix varia WS48, T. varius S13]
                    |--T. v. varius [incl. T. varia stirlingi Mathews 1912] WS48
                    |--T. v. novaecaledoniae S13
                    `--T. v. scintillans (Gould 1845) [=Hemipodius scintillans] WS48

Turnix castanotus (Gould 1839) JT12, WS48 [=Hemipodius castanotus WS48; incl. T. castanota magnifica Mathews 1912 WS48]

Turnix pyrrhothorax (Gould 1841) JT12, WS48 [=Hemipodius pyrrhothorax WS48; incl. T. pyrrhothorax berneyi Mathews 1912 WS48]

Turnix velox (Gould 1841) [=Hemipodius velox; incl. T. velox picturata Mathews 1912, T. velox vinotincta Mathews 1912] WS48

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[L98] Livezey, B. C. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 353: 2077-2151.

[ME04] Mayr, G., & P. G. P. Ericson. 2004. Evidence for a sister group relationship between the Madagascan mesites (Mesitornithidae) and the cuckoos (Cuculidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 84 (1-2): 1-17.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 1-78, pl. 1-3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Report on birds collected at Windvogelberg, South Africa, by Capt. G. E. Bulger, C. M. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 21-23.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

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