Diaspididae

Coconut scales Aspidiotus destructor, photographed by Scot Nelson.


Belongs within: Coccoidea.
Contains: Parlatoriini.

The Diaspididae, armoured scales, are a diverse group of scale insects covered by a wax-like, fibrous scale formed from pygidial secretions, anal excreta and the exuviae of previous instars (Carver et al. 1991).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Adult female legless, without antennae; fourth and following segments of abdomen usually fused to form pygidium, marginally bearing complex of tubular ducts, marginal spines, plates and gland spines; operculum absent. Scale incorporating exuviae of first and second instars, adult female sometimes remaining enclosed within exuviae of second instar.

<==Diaspididae T02
    |--Ulucoccus Takagi, Tho & Khoo 1990 [Ulucoccinae] T02
    |    |--U. danumensis T02
    |    `--U. gombakensis T02
    |--Diaspidinae T02
    |    |--Lepidosaphidini [Lepidosaphedini] T02
    |    |    |  i. s.: Mitulaspis malayana T02
    |    |    |--Coccomytilina T02
    |    |    |--Howardiina T02
    |    |    |--Mempelaspis [Mempelaspidina] T02
    |    |    |    `--M. serpentina Takagi 2000 T02
    |    |    `--Lepidosaphes M27 [Lepidosaphidina T02]
    |    |         |--L. beckii ACW01
    |    |         |--L. cordylinidis M27
    |    |         `--L. ulmi WP99
    |    `--Diaspidini T02
    |         |--Kuwanaspidina T02
    |         |--Protodiaspidina T02
    |         |--Fiorinia [Fioriniina] T02
    |         |    `--F. (Adiscofiorinia) pygosema Green & Laing 1923 [=Mongrovaspis pygosema] T02
    |         |--Diaspis G26 [Diaspidina T02]
    |         |    `--D. echinocacti G26
    |         `--Chionaspis G33 [Chionaspidina T02]
    |              |--C. citri G33
    |              `--C. eucalypti G29
    `--Aspidiotinae T02
         |--Parlatoriini T02
         |--Odonaspis [Odonaspidini] T02
         |    `--O. arcusnotata Ben-Dov 1988 T02
         |--Thysanaspis Ferris 1955 [Thysanaspidini] T02
         |    |--*T. acalyptus Ferris 1955 T02
         |    |--T. litseae Takagi 1961 T02
         |    `--T. perkinsi Takagi 1969 T02
         |--Smilacicola Takagi 1969 [Smilacicolini] T02
         |    |--*S. apicalis Takagi 1969 T02
         |    |--S. crenatus Takagi 1983 T02
         |    `--S. heimi (Balachowsky 1947) [=Rugaspidiotus heimi] T02
         |--Leucaspidini T02
         |    |--Leucaspis cordylinidis M27
         |    |--Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell 1897) T02
         |    `--Mongrovaspis Bodenheimer 1951 T02
         |         `--*M. quadrispinosa (Green 1934) [=Leucaspis quadrispinosa] T02
         `--Aspidiotus Bouché 1833 K00 [Aspidiotini T02]
              |--A. destructor S07
              |--A. hederae [incl. A. buddleiae, A. carpodeti, A. epidendri] M27
              |--A. juglansregiae Comstock 1880 S69
              |--A. nerii S07
              |--A. proteus Pampaloni 1902 K00
              |--A. secretus G17
              |--A. uvae B49
              `--A. vitiensis K08

Diaspididae incertae sedis:
  Lapazia Ferris 1937 OK06
  Pinnaspis strachani MHG04
  Aonidiella GE05
    |--A. aurantii C81 [=Aspidiotus aurantii D37]
    `--A. citrina WD04
  Xanthophthalma T02
  Salicicola T02
    |--S. kermanensis (Lindinger 1906) T02
    `--S. vayssierei Balachowsky 1928 T02
  Melanaspis KU07
    |--M. glomerata G01
    `--M. inopinata KU07
  Pseudaulacaspis pentagona KU07
  Chrysomphalus CGW91
    |--C. aonidum CGW91
    |--C. aurantii K08
    |--C. dictyospermi [incl. C. dictyospermi var. pinnulifera] K08
    `--C. ficus WEE70
  Unaspis citri S07
  Quadraspidiotus CGW91
    |--Q. lenticularis CGW91
    |--Q. ostreaeformis CGW91
    |--Q. perniciosus CGW91
    `--Q. pyri WEE70
  Berlesaspis spinifera CGW91
  Maskellia globosa CGW91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 376–380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[B49] Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 99 (3238): 267–320.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213–232.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[G26] Girault, A. A. 1926. New pests from Australia. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 200–202).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262–265).

[G33] Girault, A. A. 1933. Some beauties inhabitant not of commercial boudoirs but of Nature’s bosom, notably new insects. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 299–303).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[KU07] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2007. Natural enemies of the walnut pest Aceria tristriatus (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 451–453. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187–218.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[M27] Myers, J. G. 1927. On the nomenclature of New Zealand Homoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 685–690.

[OK06] Özdikmen, H., & A. B. Kury. 2006. Three homonymous generic names in Araneae and Opiliones. Journal of Arachnology 34 (1): 279–280.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[T02] Takagi, S. 2002. One new subfamily and two new tribes of the Diaspididae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Insecta Matsumurana, new series 59: 55–100.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WD04] Wardhaugh, C. W., & R. K. Didham. 2004. The effect of introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Hymenoptera: Vespidae) predation on the dispersive life history stages of beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Homoptera: Margarodidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 91–101.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS