Diaspididae

Bermuda grass scales Odonaspis ruthae, copyright David Shetlar.


Belongs within: Coccoidea.
Contains: Melanaspis, Pseudoparlatoria, Lepidosaphidini, Diaspidini, Parlatoriini, Aspidiotus.

The Diaspididae, armoured scales, are a diverse group of scale insects covered by a wax-like, fibrous scale formed from pygidial secretions, anal excreta and the exuviae of previous instars (Carver et al. 1991). Takagi (2002) recognised three subfamilies within the Diaspididae with the genus Ulucoccus differing from most other diaspidids in the lack of appendages on the pygidium of the adult female except for minute gland spines.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Adult female legless, without antennae; fourth and following segments of abdomen usually fused to form pygidium, marginally bearing complex of tubular ducts, marginal spines, plates and gland spines; operculum absent. Scale incorporating exuviae of first and second instars, adult female sometimes remaining enclosed within exuviae of second instar.

<==Diaspididae T02
    |--Ulucoccus Takagi, Tho & Khoo 1990 [Ulucoccinae] T02
    |    |--U. danumensis T02
    |    `--U. gombakensis T02
    |--Diaspidinae T02
    |    |--Lepidosaphidini T02
    |    `--Diaspidini T02
    `--Aspidiotinae T02
         |--Parlatoriini T02
         |--Odonaspis [Odonaspidini] T02
         |    |--O. arcusnotata Ben-Dov 1988 T02
         |    |--O. benardi M96
         |    |--O. graminis M96
         |    |--O. litorosa M96
         |    `--O. ruthae M96
         |--Thysanaspis Ferris 1955 [Thysanaspidini] T02
         |    |--*T. acalyptus Ferris 1955 T02
         |    |--T. litseae Takagi 1961 T02
         |    `--T. perkinsi Takagi 1969 T02
         |--Smilacicola Takagi 1969 [Smilacicolini] T02
         |    |--*S. apicalis Takagi 1969 T02
         |    |--S. crenatus Takagi 1983 T02
         |    `--S. heimi (Balachowsky 1947) [=Rugaspidiotus heimi] T02
         |--Leucaspidini T02
         |    |--Leucaspis cordylinidis M27
         |    |--Lopholeucaspis T02
         |    |    |--L. cockerelli M96
         |    |    `--L. japonica (Cockerell 1897) T02
         |    `--Mongrovaspis Bodenheimer 1951 T02
         |         `--*M. quadrispinosa (Green 1934) [=Leucaspis quadrispinosa] T02
         `--Aspidiotus T02

Diaspididae incertae sedis:
  Lapazia Ferris 1937 OK06
    `--L. obtecta M96
  Pinnaspis M96
    |--P. aspidistrae M96
    |--P. buxi M96
    `--P. strachani MHG04
  Aonidiella GE05
    |--A. aurantii S07 [=Aspidiotus aurantii D37]
    |--A. citrina WD04
    `--A. orientalis M96
  Xanthophthalma concinnum M96
  Salicicola T02
    |--S. kermanensis (Lindinger 1906) T02
    `--S. vayssierei Balachowsky 1928 T02
  Melanaspis KU07
  Pseudaulacaspis S07
    |--P. cockerelli M96
    `--P. pentagona S07
  Chrysomphalus CGW91
    |--C. aonidum CGW91
    |--C. aurantii K08
    |--C. bifasciculatus M96
    |--C. dictyospermi [incl. C. dictyospermi var. pinnulifera] K08
    `--C. ficus WEE70
  Unaspis S07
    |--U. citri S07
    `--U. euonymi M96
  Quadraspidiotus CGW91
    |--Q. forbesi M96
    |--Q. juglansregiae M96
    |--Q. lenticularis CGW91
    |--Q. ostreaeformis CGW91
    |--Q. perniciosus CGW91
    `--Q. pyri WEE70
  Berlesaspis spinifera CGW91
  Maskellia globosa CGW91
  Abgrallaspis M96
    |--A. cyanophylli M96
    |--A. flabellata M96
    |--A. fraxini M96
    |--A. howardi M96
    `--A. townsendi M96
  Acutaspis M96
    |--A. agavis M96
    |--A. albopicta M96
    |--A. aliena M96
    |--A. decorosa M96
    |--A. perseae M96
    |--A. reniformis M96
    |--A. rhizophorae M96
    |--A. scutiformis M96
    `--A. tingi M96
  Ancepaspis M96
    |--A. novemdentata M96
    |--A. quadridentata M96
    `--A. tridentata M96
  Annulaspis singularis M96
  Aonidomytilus M96
    |--A. albus M96
    |--A. concolor M96
    |--A. insulanus M96
    `--A. peninsularis M96
  Aspidiella sacchari M96
  Carulaspis minima M96
  Chortinaspis subchortina M96
  Circulaspis M96
    |--C. bibursella M96
    `--C. fistulata M96
  Clavaspis M96
    |--C. coursetiae M96
    |--C. covilleae M96
    |--C. herculeana M96
    |--C. pedilanthi M96
    |--C. subsimilis M96
    `--C. texana M96
  Comstockiella sabalis M96
  Crassaspis M96
    |--C. maculata M96
    `--C. multipora M96
  Crenulaspidiotus maurellae M96
  Dactylaspis M96
    |--D. acuta M96
    |--D. calcarata M96
    |--D. dactylifera M96
    |--D. flaccida M96
    `--D. serratiloba M96
  Diaspidiotus M96
    |--D. aesculi M96
    |--D. alni W91
    |--D. ancylus M96
    |--D. bumeliae M96
    |--D. coniferarum M96
    |--D. crescentiae M96
    `--D. osborni M96
  Duplaspidiotus M96
    |--D. fossor M96
    `--D. tesseratus M96
  Epidiaspis M96
    |--E. baccharidis M96
    |--E. leperii M96
    |--E. michoacana M96
    |--E. montana M96
    |--E. peragrata M96
    `--E. persimilis M96
  Exuviaspis enceliae M96
  Ferrisidea M96
    |--F. dentiloba M96
    |--F. magna M96
    `--F. prosopidis M96
  Furcaspis biformis M96
  Haliaspis M96
    |--H. distichlii M96
    `--H. milleri M96
  Helaspis mexicana M96
  Hemiberlesia M96
    |--H. candidula M96
    |--H. cupressi M96
    |--H. diffinis M96
    |--H. lataniae M96
    |--H. palmae M96
    |--H. popularum M96
    `--H. rapax M96
  Ischnaspis Douglas 1887 M96, EH09
    `--I. longirostris M96
  Lindingaspis rossi M96
  Manacaspis piriformis M96
  Morganella M96
    |--M. cueroensis M96
    `--M. longispina M96
  Mycetaspis M96
    |--M. apicata M96
    |--M. defectopalus M96
    |--M. personata M96
    `--M. sphaerioides M96
  Mytilaspis M96
    |--M. cordylinidis G29
    |--M. fulva A99
    `--M. mexicana M96
  Nicholiella digitata M96
  Niveaspis M96
    |--N. argentata M96
    |--N. cattleyae M96
    |--N. fenestrata M96
    `--N. townsendiana M96
  Nuculaspis M96
    |--N. apacheca M96
    `--N. californica M96
  Opuntiaspis M96
    |--O. carinata M96
    |--O. javanensis M96
    `--O. philococcus M96
  Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis M96
  Pseudischnaspis M96
    |--P. acephala M96
    `--P. bowreyi M96
  Pseudodiaspis elaphrii M96
  Pseudoparlatoria M96
  Quernaspis quercus M96
  Rhizaspidiotus dearnessi M96
  Rugaspidiotinus M96
    |--R. circumdatus M96
    `--R. fuscitatis M96
  Rugaspidiotus M96
    |--R. arizonicus M96
    `--R. sculpturatus M96
  Scytalaspis quadriclavata M96
  Selenaspidopsis M96
    |--S. browni M96
    `--S. mexicana M96
  Selenaspidus articulatus M96
  Situlaspis M96
    |--S. ruelliae M96
    `--S. yuccae M96
  Stramenaspis kelloggi M96
  Velataspis M96
    |--V. anasterias M96
    `--V. mimosarum M96
  Vinculaspis M96
    |--V. laniata M96
    `--V. virgata M96
  Xerophilaspis prosopidis M96
  Aulacaspis S07
    |--A. difficilis S07
    |--A. rosae K08
    |--A. tegalensis S07
    `--A. tubercularis S07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (transl. 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[EH09] Edward, K. L., & M. S. Harvey. 2009. A new species of Ischnothyreus (Araneae: Oonopidae) from monsoon rainforest of northern Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 287–293.

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262–265).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KU07] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2007. Natural enemies of the walnut pest Aceria tristriatus (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 451–453. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[M96] Miller, D. R. 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 68–86.

[M27] Myers, J. G. 1927. On the nomenclature of New Zealand Homoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 685–690.

[OK06] Özdikmen, H., & A. B. Kury. 2006. Three homonymous generic names in Araneae and Opiliones. Journal of Arachnology 34 (1): 279–280.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[T02] Takagi, S. 2002. One new subfamily and two new tribes of the Diaspididae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Insecta Matsumurana, new series 59: 55–100.

[WD04] Wardhaugh, C. W., & R. K. Didham. 2004. The effect of introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Hymenoptera: Vespidae) predation on the dispersive life history stages of beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Homoptera: Margarodidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 91–101.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[W91] Wunderle, I. 1991. Life-histories and notes on the behaviour of tree-living oribatid mites. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 529–535. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Last updated: 8 February 2020.

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