Eriococcidae

Gum-tree scale Acanthococcus coriaceus, photographed by Arthur Chapman.


Belongs within: Coccoidea.

The Eriococcidae are a group of scale insects characterised by well-developed anal lobes, a poriferous and setiferous anal ring, conical or bulbous dorsal setae, enlarged macroducts cupped at the inner end, microducts, quinquelocular disc pores, and small cruciform pores. Representatives sometimes cause remarkable galls on host trees (Carver et al. 1991).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Female without dorsal ostioles, ventral circuli and cerarii; anterior and posterior pairs of thoracic spiracles approximately the same size; abdominal spiracles absent; terminal segments of abdomen not fused into pygidium; anal ring usually with a single row of pores; tubular ducts, if present, with inner end invaginated to form a cup.

<==Eriococcidae [Idiococcinae]
    |--Madarococcus MC94
    |--Opisthoscelis AY04
    |--Cystococcus AY04
    |--Lachnodius eucalypti B88
    |--Epicoccus CGW91
    |--Sphaerococcopsis CGW91
    |--Ascelis CGW91
    |--Casuarinaloma CGW91
    |--Floracoccus CGW91
    |--Gossyparia casuarinae WEE70, S07
    |--Olliffia WEE70
    |--Ourococcus WEE70
    |--Capulinia sallei M96
    |--Carpochloroides mexicanus M96
    |--Oregmopyga peninsularis M96
    |--Xerococcus fouquieriae M96
    |--Kaweckia MG96
    |--Apezococcus idiastes W87
    |--Keithia Koteja 2000 nec Spreng. 1822 (ICBN) nec Sacc. 1892 (ICBN) K00
    |    `--K. luzzii Koteja 2000 K00
    |--Gedanicoccus Koteja 1988 K00
    |    `--G. gracilis Koteja 1988 K00
    |--Kuenowicoccus Koteja 1988 K00
    |    `--K. pietrzeniukae Koteja 1988 K00
    |--Balticoccus Koteja 1988 K00
    |    |--B. oblicus Koteja 1988 K00
    |    `--B. spinosus Koteja 1988 K00
    |--Jutlandicoccus Koteja 1988 K00
    |    |--J. pauper Koteja 1988 K00
    |    `--J. perfectus Koteja 1988 K00
    |--Eriococcus B88
    |    |--E. nitidus B88
    |    `--E. rorismarinus Fonscolombe 1834 S69
    |--Cylindrococcus [Cylindrococcidae] N91
    |    |--C. amplior G34
    |    |--C. casuarinae B88
    |    `--C. spiniferus CGW91
    `--Acanthococcus Signoret 1875 [incl. Gregoporia Danzig 1979] MG96
         |--A. abdifus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus abditus] MG96
         |--A. acericola (Tang & Hao 1995) [=Eriococcus acericola] MG96
         |--A. aceris MG96
         |    |--A. a. aceris MG96
         |    `--A. a. kurdicus (Bodenheimer 1943) [=Eriococcus aceris kurdica] MG96
         |--A. acutispinatus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus acutispinatus] MG96
         |--A. agonis (Fuller 1897) [=Eriococcus agonis] MG96
         |--A. albatus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus albatus] MG96
         |--A. amomidis (Gomez-Menor 1935) [=Eriococcus amomidis] MG96
         |--A. angulatus (Froggatt 1916) [=Eriococcus angulatus] MG96
         |--A. apiomorphae (Fuller 1897) [=Eriococcus apiomorphae] MG96
         |--A. araucariae M96
         |    |--A. a. araucariae MG96
         |    |--A. a. minor (Maskell 1895) [=Eriococcus araucariae minor] MG96
         |    `--A. a. nudus (Gomez-Menor 1957) [=Eriococcus araucariae nuda] MG96
         |--A. arboisi (Goux 1991) [=Eriococcus arboisi] MG96
         |--A. arcanus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus arcanus] MG96
         |--A. argentifagi (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus argentifagi] MG96
         |--A. armeniacus (Tang & Hao 1995) [=Eriococcus armeniacus] MG96
         |--A. artiguesi (Goux 1991) [=Eriococcus artiguesi] MG96
         |--A. asteliae (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus asteliae] MG96
         |--A. aurescens M96
         |--A. australis (Maskell 1895) [=Eriococcus buxi australis] MG96
         |--A. bambusae (Green 1922) [=Eriococcus bambusae] MG96
         |--A. beilschmiediae (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus beilschmiediae] MG96
         |--A. betulaefoliae (Tang & Hao 1995) [=Eriococcus betulaefoliae] MG96
         |--A. bezzii (Leonardi 1907) [=Eriococcus bezzii] MG96
         |--A. bicolor (Froggatt 1915) [=Rhizococcus bicolor] MG96
         |--A. boguschi (McDaniel 1964) [=Eriococcus boguschi] MG96
         |--A. brachypodii (Borchsenius & Danzig 1966) [=Greenisca brachypodii] MG96
         |--A. brasiliensis (Cockerell 1900) [=Eriococcus brasiliensis] MG96
         |--A. brevenniae (Goux 1993) [=Eriococcus brevenniae] MG96
         |--A. brittini (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus brittini] MG96
         |--A. cactearum (Leonardi 1918) [=Eriococcus cactearum] MG96
         |--A. campbelli (Hoy 1959) [=Eriococcus campbelli] MG96
         |--A. campinensis (Hempel 1937) [=Eriococcus campinensis] MG96
         |--A. cantium (Williams 1985) [=Eriococcus cantium] MG96
         |--A. castanopus (Tang & Hao 1995) [=Eriococcus castanopus] MG96
         |--A. casuarinae (Maskell 1893) [=Rhizococcus casuarinae] MG96
         |--A. caudatus (Tang & Hao 1995) [=Eriococcus caudatus] MG96
         |--A. cavellii (Maskell 1890) [=Gossyparia cavellii] MG96
         |--A. celmisiae (Masekll 1884) [=Rhizococcus celmisiae] MG96
         |--A. chaoticus (Goux 1991) [=Eriococcus chaoticus] MG96
         |--A. chathamensis (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus chathamensis] MG96
         |--A. chilensis (Miller & González 1975) [=Eriococcus chilensis] MG96
         |--A. coccineus M96
         |--A. coffeae (Hempel 1919) [=Eriococcus coffeae] MG96
         |--A. confluens (Maskell 1893) [=Gossyparia confluens] MG96
         |--A. confusus (Maskell 1892) [=Eriococcus confusus] MG96
         |--A. consperus (Masekll 1893) [=Eriococcus consperus] MG96
         |--A. constrictus (Froggatt 1933) [=Eriococcus constrictus] MG96
         |--A. coprosmae (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus coprosmae] MG96
         |--A. coriaceus (Maskell 1893) [=Eriococcus coriaceus] MG96
         |--A. corniculatus (Ferris 1950) [=Eriococcus corniculatus] MG96
         |--A. costaricensis (Cockerell & Robinson 1915) [=Eriococcus costaricensis] MG96
         |--A. crenilobatus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus crenilobatus] MG96
         |--A. crispus (Fonscolombe 1834) [=Coccus crispus] MG96
         |--A. crofti (Froggatt 1916) [=Eriococcus crofti] MG96
         |--A. cultellus (Hoy 1959) [=Eriococcus cultellus] MG96
         |--A. curassavicus (Reyne 1964) [=Eriococcus curassavicus] MG96
         |--A. dacrydii (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus dacrydii] MG96
         |--A. danthoniae (Maskell 1891) [=Eriococcus danthoniae] MG96
         |--A. danzigi Miller & Gimpel 1996 [=A. confusus Danzing 1962 non Eriococcus confusus Maskell 1892] MG96
         |--A. detectus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus detectus] MG96
         |--A. devoniensis [=Eriococcus devoniensis] RD77
         |--A. diverspinus (Leonardi 1911) [=Eriococcus diverspinus] MG96
         |--A. dubius M96
         |--A. dziedzickae Miller & Gimpel 1996 (see below ofr synonymy) MG96
         |--A. elaeocarpi (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus elaeocarpi] MG96
         |--A. elegans (Fuller 1897) [=Eriococcus elegans] MG96
         |--A. elytranthae (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus elytranthae] MG96
         |--A. emirnensis (Mamet 1954) [=Eriococcus emirnensis] MG96
         |--A. ericae (Signoret 1875) [=Eriococcus ericae] MG96
         |--A. etbaicus (De Lotto 1954) [=Eriococcus etbaicus] MG96
         |--A. eucalypti (Maskell 1892) [=Eriococcus eucalypti] MG96
         |--A. eurythrix (Miller & González 1975) [=Eriococcus eurythrix] MG96
         |--A. evelinae (Kozar 1983) [=Rhizococcus evelinae] MG96
         |--A. fagicorticis (Maskell 1892) [=Eriococcus fagicorticis] MG96
         |--A. festucarum (Lindinger 1932) (see below for synonymy) MG96
         |--A. formicicola (Newstead 1897) [=Eriococcus formicicola] MG96
         |--A. fossilis (Froggatt 1933) [=Eriococcus fossilis] MG96
         |--A. fossor (Maskell 1884) [=Rhizococcus fossor] MG96
         |--A. franceschinii (Balachowsky 1934) [=Eriococcus franceschinii] MG96
         |--A. fuligitectus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus fuligitectus] MG96
         |--A. gassinus (Goux 1992) [=Eriococcus gassinus] MG96
         |--A. gaultheriae (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus gaultheriae] MG96
         |--A. gerbergeri M96
         |--A. gibbus (Hoy 1959) [=Eriococcus gibbus] MG96
         |--A. glyceriae (Green 1921) [=Eriococcus glyceriae] MG96
         |--A. gouxi (Balachowsky 1954) [=Anophococcus gouxi] MG96
         |--A. graminicola (Borchsenius 1949) [=Rhizococcus graminicola] MG96
         |--A. grandis (Maskell 1892) [=Rhizococcus grandis] MG96
         |    |--A. g. grandis MG96
         |    `--A. g. spinosior (Maskell 1893) [=Rhizococcus grandis spinosior] MG96
         |--A. guesinus (Goux 1992) [=Eriococcus guesinus] MG96
         |--A. gurneyi (Fuller 1899) [=Eriococcus gurneyi] MG96
         |--A. hakeae (Fuller 1897) [=Eriococcus hakeae] MG96
         |--A. hebes (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus hebes] MG96
         |--A. hispidus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus hispidus] MG96
         |--A. humatus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus humatus] MG96
         |--A. iljiniae (Danzig 1972) [=Rhizococcus iljiniae] MG96
         |--A. imperfectus (Fuller 1897) [=Rhizococcus imperfectus] MG96
         |--A. inermis (Green 1915) [=Eriococcus inermis] MG96
         |--A. ironsidei (Williams 1973) [=Eriococcus ironsidei] MG96
         |--A. irregularis (Froggatt 1921) [=Eriococcus irregularis] MG96
         |--A. istriensis (Kozar 1983) [=Gregoporia istriensis] MG96
         |--A. jorgenseni (Morrison 1919) [=Eriococcus jorgenseni] MG96
         |--A. kamahi (Hoy 1958) [=Eriococcus kamahi] MG96
         |--A. kijabensis (James 1934) [=Eriococcus kijabensis] MG96
         |--A. kondarensis (Borchsenius 1949) [=Eriococcus kondarensis] MG96
         |--A. kowhai (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus kowhai] MG96
         |--A. laeticoris (Tereznikova 1965) [=Greenisca laeticoris] MG96
         |--A. lanatus (Hempel 1932) [=Eriococcus lanatus] MG96
         |--A. larreae M96
         |--A. latilobatus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus latilobatus] MG96
         |--A. lecanioides (Green 1915) [=Rhizococcus lecanioides] MG96
         |--A. leguminicola (Morrison 1919) [=Eriococcus leguminicola] MG96
         |--A. leptospermi (Maskell 1891) [=Eriococcus leptospermi] MG96
         |--A. lidgetti (Cockerell 1899) [=Rhizococcus lidgetti] MG96
         |--A. mancus (Maskell 1897) [=Rhizococcus casuarinae mancus] MG96
         |--A. maskelli (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus maskelli] MG96
         |--A. matai (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus matai] MG96
         |--A. matesovae Miller & Gimpel 1996 (see below for synonymy) MG96
         |--A. mendozae (Morrison 1919) [=Eriococcus mendozae] MG96
         |--A. meridianus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus meridianus] MG96
         |--A. milleri (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus milleri] MG96
         |--A. mimus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus mimus] MG96
         |--A. montanus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus montanus] MG96
         |--A. montifagi (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus montifagi] MG96
         |--A. multispinatus (Tang & Hao 1995) [=Rhizococcus multispinatus] MG96
         |--A. multispinosus (Kuhlgatz 1898) [=Rhizococcus multispinosus] MG96
         |--A. myrsinae (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus myrsinae] MG96
         |--A. navarinoensis (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus navarinoensis] MG96
         |--A. nelsonensis (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus nelsonensis] MG96
         |--A. nematosphaerus (Hu, Xie & Yan 1981) [=Eriococcus nematosphaerus] MG96
         |--A. neomyrti (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus neomyrti] MG96
         |--A. ningxianensis (Tang & Hao 1995) [=Eriococcus ningxianensis] MG96
         |--A. nitidulus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus nitidulus] MG96
         |--A. nothofagi (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus nothofagi] MG96
         |--A. nuerae (Green 1922) [=Eriococcus nuerae] MG96
         |--A. oblongus (Borchsenius 1949) [=Rhizococcus oblongus] MG96
         |--A. oligacanthus (Danzig 1972) [=Rhizococcus oligacanthus] MG96
         |--A. orariensis (Hoy 1954) [=Eriococcus orariensis] MG96
         |--A. orientalis (Borchsenius 1956) [=Greenisca orientalis] MG96
         |--A. pallidus (Maskell 1885) [=Eriococcus pallidus] MG96
         |--A. palmeri M96
         |--A. papillosus (Morrison 1924) [=Eriococcus papillosus] MG96
         |--A. parabilis (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus parabilis] MG96
         |--A. parvisetus [incl. Eriococcus parvispinus Goux 1948] MG96
         |--A. parvulus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus parvulus] MG96
         |--A. paucispinus M96
         |--A. perplexus (Hempel 1900) [=Eriococcus perplexus] MG96
         |--A. philippinensis (Morrison 1920) [=Rhizococcus philippinensis] MG96
         |--A. phyllocladi (Maskell 1892) [=Eriococcus phyllocladi] MG96
         |--A. picta (Froggatt 1916) [=Eriococcus picta] MG96
         |--A. pimeliae (Hoy 1963) [=Eriococcus pimeliae] MG96
         |--A. piptandeniae (Hempel 1937) [=Eriococcus piptandeniae] MG96
         |--A. placidus (Green 1921) [=Eriococcus placidus] MG96
         |--A. podocarpi (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus podocarpi] MG96
         |--A. pohutukawa (Hoy 1958) [=Eriococcus pohutukawa] MG96
         |--A. popayanensis (Balachowsky 1959) [=Eriococcus popayanensis] MG96
         |--A. pseudinsignis (Green 1921) [=Eriococcus pseudinsignis] MG96
         |--A. pustulatus (Maskell 1893) [=Rhizococcus pustulatus] MG96
         |--A. puymorensis (Goux 1992) [=Eriococcus puymorensis] MG96
         |--A. quercus M96
         |--A. raithbyi (Maskell 1890) [=Eriococcus raithbyi] MG96
         |--A. rata (Hoy 1958) [=Eriococcus rata] MG96
         |--A. reynei (Schmutterer 1952) [=Eriococcus reynei] MG96
         |--A. rhadinothrix (Miller & González 1975) [=Eriococcus rhadinothrix] MG96
         |--A. rhodomyrti (Green 1922) [=Eriococcus rhodomyrti] MG96
         |--A. rosaceus (Balachowsky 1932) [=Eriococcus rosaceus] MG96
         |--A. rosannae (Tranfaglia & Esposito 1985) [=Eriococcus rosannae] MG96
         |--A. rotundus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus rotundus] MG96
         |--A. rubrus (Matesova 1960) [=Greenisca rubra] MG96
         |--A. rubrifagi (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus rubrifagi] MG96
         |--A. rugosus (Froggatt 1933) [=Eriococcus rugosus] MG96
         |--A. rusapiensis (Hall 1937) [=Eriococcus rusapiensis] MG96
         |--A. saboteneus (Kuwana & Tanaka 1922) [=Eriococcus saboteneus] MG96
         |--A. sachalinensis (Siraiwa 1939) [=Eriococcus sachalinensis] MG96
         |--A. salsolae (Borchsenius 1949) [=Rhizococcus salsolae] MG96
         |--A. sanguinairensis (Goux 1993) [=Eriococcus sanguinairensis] MG96
         |--A. serratilobis (Green 1915) [=Eriococcus serratilobis] MG96
         |    |--A. s. serratilobis MG96
         |    `--A. s. prominens (Green 1915) [=Eriococcus serratilobis prominens] MG96
         |--A. setulosus (Hoy 1962) [=Eriococcus setulosus] MG96
         |--A. shiraiwai M96
         |--A. simplex (Maskell 1897) [=Eriococcus simplex] MG96
         |--A. socialis (Goux 1931) [=Eriococcus socialis] MG96
         |--A. sophorae (Green 1929) [=Eriococcus sophorae] MG96
         |--A. sordidus (Green 1904) [=Eriococcus sordidus] MG96
         |--A. spiniger (Maskell 1896) [=Eriococcus spiniger] MG96
         |--A. stenoclini (Mamet 1950) [=Eriococcus stenoclini] MG96
         |--A. sutepensis (Takahashi 19420 [=Eriococcus sutepensis] MG96
         |--A. targassonensis (Goux 1993) [=Eriococcus targassonensis] MG96
         |--A. tavignani (Goux 1991) [=Eriococcus tavignani] MG96
         |--A. tenuis (Green 1922) [=Eriococcus tenuis] MG96
         |--A. tepperi (Maskell 1892) [=Eriococcus tepperi] MG96
         |--A. tesselatus (Froggatt 1916) [=Eriococcus tesselatus] MG96
         |--A. tholothrix (Miller & González 1975) [=Eriococcus tholothrix] MG96
         |--A. thymi (Schrank 1801) [=Coccus thymi] MG96
         |--A. tillandsiae M96
         |--A. timidus (Hulden 1985) [=Eriococcus timidus] MG96
         |--A. tricarinatus (Fuller 1897) [=Eriococcus tricarinatus] MG96
         |--A. tripartitus (Fuller 1897) [=Eriococcus tripartitus] MG96
         |--A. trispinatus (Wang 1974) [=Eriococcus trispinatus] MG96
         |--A. tucurincae (Laing 1929) [=Eriococcus tucurincae] MG96
         |--A. valenzuelae (Balachowsky 1959) [=Eriococcus valenzuelae] MG96
         |--A. variabilis (Goux 1940) [=Eriococcus variabilis] MG96
         |--A. veyrensis (Goux 1991) [=Eriococcus veyrensis] MG96
         |--A. villosus (Froggatt 1916) [=Eriococcus villosus] MG96
         |--A. wangi Miller & Gimpel 1996 [=Eriococcus rugosus Wang 1982 non Froggatt 1933] MG96
         `--A. zygophylli (Archangelskaya 1931) [=Eriococcus zygophylli] MG96

Acanthococcus dziedzickae Miller & Gimpel 1996 [=Rhizococcus palustris Dziedzicka & Koteja 1971 non A. palustris Dodds 1923] MG96

Acanthococcus festucarum (Lindinger 1932) [=Eriococcus festucarum, E. festucae Kuwana & Fukaya in Kuwana 1914 non Targioni Tozzetti 1869] MG96

Acanthococcus matesovae Miller & Gimpel 1996 [=A. multispinosus Matesova 1976 non Rhizococcus multispinosus Kuhlgatz 1898] MG96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under'—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G34] Girault, A. A. 1934. New Capsidae and Hymenoptera, with note on an unmentionable. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 311–314).

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187–218.

[M96] Miller, D. R. 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 68–86.

[MG96] Miller, D. R., & M. E. Gimpel. 1996. Nomenclatural changes in the Eriococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 597–606.

[MC94] Morrone, J. J., & J. M. Carpenter. 1994. In search of a method for cladistic biogeography: an empirical comparison of component analysis, Brooks parsimony analysis, and three-area statements. Cladistics 10: 99–153.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[W87] Walter, D. E. 1987. Belowground arthropods of semiarid grasslands. In: Capinera, J. L. (ed.) Integrated Pest Management on Rangeland: A shortgrass prairie perspective pp. 271–290. Westview Press, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado).

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

Last updated: 22 March 2021.

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