Male and female of Puto albicans, in ventral view, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).

Belongs within: Coccinea.
Contains: Pseudococcidae, Eriococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae.

The Coccoidea are recognised here, following Koteja (2000), as including the neococcoid scale insects; other authors use this name to refer to all scale insects (Coccinea).

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005, as 'neococcoids'): Females lacking abdominal spiracles; male eyes reduced to individual facets; unique chromosomal system of sex determination by paternal genome elimination.

<==Coccoidea K00
    |--+--Pseudococcidae GE05
    |  `--+--Inka Koteja 1989 K00 [Inkaidae GE05]
    |     |    `--I. minuta Koteja 1989 K00
    |     `--+--Eriococcidae GE05
    |        |--Coccidae GE05
    |        `--Diaspididae GE05
    `--+--Puto Signoret 1876 K00 [Putoidae GE05]
       |    |--P. albicans GE05
       |    |--P. avitus (Menge 1856) [=Coccus avitus] K00
       |    `--P. trivenosus (Germar & Berendt 1856) [=Monophlebus trivenosus] K00
       `--Labiococcidae GE05
            |--Labiococcus Koteja 2000 K00
            |    `--L. joosti Koteja 2000 K00
            `--Solicoccus Koteja 2000 K00
                 `--S. nascimbenei Koteja 2000 K00

Coccoidea incertae sedis:
  Sucinikermes Koteja 1988 [Kermesidae] K00
    `--S. kulickae Koteja 1988 K00
  Aclerdidae K00
  Lecanodiaspididae K00
    |--Psoraleococcus GE05
    `--Lecanodiaspis prosopidis B88
  Beesoniidae K00
  Micrococcidae K00
  Dactylopius G17 [Dactylopiidae K00]
    |--D. ceylonicus B82
    |--D. glaciale G17
    `--D. opuntiae H91
  Apiomorpha [Apiomorphidae K00]
    |--A. conica G84
    |--A. duplex AY04
    |--A. frenchi B88
    |--A. maliformis B88
    |--A. ovicola [=Brachyscelis ovicola] B88
    |--A. pileata [=Brachyscelis pileata] B88
    `--A. strombylosa [incl. Brachyscelis crispa] B88
  Cerococcidae K00
  Halimococcidae GE05
  Phoenicococcus [Phoenicococcidae] T02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. pHales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B82] Batra, S. W. T. 1982. Biological control in agroecosystems. Science 215: 134-139.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80-101).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H91] Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 485-509.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187-218.

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