Female and male of Apiomorpha, copyright Galler18.

Belongs within: Coccinea.
Contains: Lecanodiaspididae, Asterolecaniidae, Tachardiidae, Pseudococcidae, Eriococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Puto.

The Coccoidea are recognised here, following Koteja (2000), as including the neococcoid scale insects; other authors use this name to refer to all scale insects (Coccinea). The earliest representatives are known from Upper Cretaceous amber, with the extinct taxa Inka minuta and Labiococcidae known only from this period (Koteja 2000). Modern representatives include the Kerriidae, a primarily tropical group with brachial plates and a dorsal spine (Carver et al. 1991). Resinous secretions from the lac insect Kerria lacca are used to produce shellac.

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005, as 'neococcoids'): Females lacking abdominal spiracles; male eyes reduced to individual facets; unique chromosomal system of sex determination by paternal genome elimination.

<==Coccoidea K00
    |--+--Pseudococcidae GE05
    |  `--+--Inka Koteja 1989 K00 [Inkaidae GE05]
    |     |    `--I. minuta Koteja 1989 K00
    |     `--+--Eriococcidae GE05
    |        |--Coccidae GE05
    |        `--Diaspididae GE05
    `--+--Puto GE05
       `--Labiococcidae GE05
            |--Labiococcus Koteja 2000 K00
            |    `--L. joosti Koteja 2000 K00
            `--Solicoccus Koteja 2000 K00
                 `--S. nascimbenei Koteja 2000 K00

Coccoidea incertae sedis:
  Kermesidae K00
    |--Kermes nigropunctatus M96
    |--Olliffiella secunda M96
    |--Sucinikermes Koteja 1988 K00
    |    `--S. kulickae Koteja 1988 K00
    `--Allokermes M96
         |--A. galliformis M96
         `--A. grandis M96
  Aclerda [Aclerdidae] WEE70
    |--A. arundinariae S96
    |--A. attenuata M96
    |--A. campinensis S96
    |--A. manni M96
    |--A. mexicana M96
    |--A. oaxacaensis M96
    |--A. sellahispanica WEE70
    |--A. sinaloaensis M96
    `--A. takahashii WEE70
  Lecanodiaspididae K00
  Beesoniidae K00
  Micrococcidae K00
  Dactylopius TRZ10 [Dactylopiidae K00]
    |--D. ceylonicus B82
    |--D. coccus TRZ10
    |--D. confusus G10
    |--D. glaciale G17
    |--D. kingii C01
    |--D. neomexicanus C01
    |--D. opuntiae CGW91
    `--D. tomentosus M96
  Apiomorpha CGW91 [Apiomorphidae K00]
    |--A. conica G84
    |--A. duplex AY04
    |--A. frenchi CGW91
    |--A. maliformis B88
    |--A. munita CGW91
    |--A. ovicola [=Brachyscelis ovicola] B88
    |--A. pedunculata N91
    |--A. pileata [=Brachyscelis pileata] B88
    `--A. strombylosa [incl. Brachyscelis crispa] B88
  Cerococcus CGW91 [Cerococcidae K00]
    |--C. koebelei M96
    |--C. quercus RD77
    |--C. russellae M96
    |--C. stellatus CGW91
    `--C. zapotlanus M96
  Colobopyga CGW91 [Halimococcidae GE05]
    |--C. attaleae M96
    |--C. australiensis CGW91
    |--C. coperniciae WEE70
    |--C. kewensis CGW91
    |--C. sabalis M96
    `--C. washingtoniae M96
  Phoenicococcus [Phoenicococcidae] T02
    `--P. marlatti CK15
  Stictococcus G17 [Stictococcidae CGW91]
    `--S. gowdeyi G17
  Asterolecaniidae CGW91
  Kerriidae [Lacciferidae] CGW91
    |--Kerria lacca GE05
    |--Austrotachardia angulata CGW91
    |--Tachardina CGW91
    |--Laccifer lacca WEE70
    `--Gascardia destructor RD77, DAF07
  Conchaspis [Conchaspididae] CGW91
    |--C. angraeci CGW91
    `--C. newsteadi M96
  Tachardiidae M96
  Cryptococcus fagi RD77
  Physokermes RD77
    |--P. insignicola G17
    `--P. piceae RD77
  Parthenolecanium corni RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. pHales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under'—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B82] Batra, S. W. T. 1982. Biological control in agroecosystems. Science 215: 134–139.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CK15] Calvo, F. J., M. Knapp, Y. M. van Houten, H. Hoogerbrugge & J. E. Belda. 2015. Amblyseius swirskii: what made this predatory mite such a successful biocontrol agent? Experimental and Applied Acarology 65: 419–433.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C01] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—XI. New and little-known insects from New Mexico. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 333–337.

[DAF07] Department of Agriculture and Food. 2007. Common Seasonal Pests. State of Western Australia.

[G10] Gaimari, S. D. 2010. Chamaemyiidae (chamaemyiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 997–1007. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187–218.

[M96] Miller, D. R. 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 68–86.

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S96] Sharkov, A. 1996. A review of the species of the genus Mucrencyrtus Noyes (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 350–368.

[T02] Takagi, S. 2002. One new subfamily and two new tribes of the Diaspididae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Insecta Matsumurana, new series 59: 55–100.

[TRZ10] Thompson, E. C., G. E. Rotheray & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 763–792. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

Last updated: 1 May 2022.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS