Ovipositing Apocryptophagus, photographed by Simon van Noort.

Belongs within: Agaonidae.

The Sycophaginae is a pantropical group of fig wasps, with females usually ovipositing from the outside and larvae feeding on ovarium tissue (Bouček 1988).

Characters (from Bouček 1988): Females always winged, with a long ovipositor protected only by its sheaths, the third valvulae. Head transverse, with broad ocellar triangle, broad frons, and antennal toruli rather wide apart. Scapes rather short; 2 anelli (sometimes reduced to 1 in Idarnes) and rest of flagellum (funicle plus clava) 9-segmentcd, apex of flagellum sometimes with loose segments. Clypeus and supraclypeal area delimited, often united. Thorax often depressed (except Pseudidarnes), with distinct notauli; scutellum conspicuously quadrangular due to the subparallel or even slightly concave lateral grooves and a transverse preapical (frenal) groove. Propodeum subhorizontal, usually almost smooth, without keels, grooves or depressions (except finely indicated median carina in some Idarnes), rather long. Forewing usually with fairly long, always diagonal stigmal vein (except some Pseudidarnes) which is sometimes even longer than the marginal vein. Gaster sessile, usually flat and broad; hind margins or tergites not excised; ovipositor frequently longer than the body (except Dynatogmus, Pseudidarnes). Males are winged and similar in body to the females only in Pseudidarnes. Otherwise they are wingless, blind, yellowish, mostly flattened, almost without sculpture, except for frequent microscopic strigosity on the gaster. Antennae wide apart, very short, adpressed to anterior end or head, often confined to shallow depressions; all tibiae shortened, subtriangular and beset by peg-like spines on outer side; terminal spiracles on gaster usually with large peritremal areas which often form long tail-like appendages.

Sycophaginae [Idarninae] B88
    |  i. s.: Dynatogmus Mayr 1906 B88
    |--+--Sycophaga HB13
    |  |    |--S. cyclostigma HB13
    |  |    `--S. sycomori MH11
    |  `--Apocryptophagus Ashmead 1904 HB13, B88 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |--*A. explorator [=Chalcis explorator] B88
    |       |--*Sycophagella’ agraensis B88
    |       |--A. concisiventris (Girault 1915) [=Koebelea concisiventris] B88
    |       |--A. flavus (Girault 1927) [=Koebelea fusca var. flava, Eukoebelea flava] B88
    |       |--A. fuscus (Girault 1915) [=*Koebelea fusca, Eukoebela fusca] B88
    |       |--A. gigas HB13
    |       `--*Parakoebelea’ stratheni B88
    `--+--Eukoebelea Ashmead 1904 HB13, B88 (see below for synonymy)
       |    `--*E. australiensis [=*Koebelea australiensis; incl. *Philotrypesopsis hallami Girault 1919] B88
       `--+--Anidarnes bicolor HB13
          `--Pseudidarnes Girault 1927 HB13, B88
               |--*P. minerva Girault 1927 B88
               `--P. flavicollis Bouček 1988 B88

Apocryptophagus Ashmead 1904 HB13, B88 [incl. Koebelea Girault 1915 nec Baker 1897 nec Ashmead 1904 B88, Parakoebelea Joseph 1957 B88, Sycophagella Joseph 1953 B88]

Eukoebelea Ashmead 1904 HB13, B88 [=Koebelea Ashmead 1904 non Baker 1897 B88; incl. Philotrypesopsis Girault 1919 B88]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466-542.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS One 6 (11): e27023.


  1. Actually, they don't belong within Agaonidae, but are hanging in Chalcidoidea incertae sedis.See: Cruaud, A. et al. 2010: Laying the foundations for a new classification of Agaonidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), a multilocus phylogenetic approach. Cladistics, 26(4): 359-387. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00291.x

  2. The Heraty et al. (2013) paper referenced above moves them back into Agaonidae, as the sister group to the Agaonidae sensu stricto.


Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS