Coccinea

Cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi, from Clemson University.


Belongs within: Aphidomorpha.
Contains: Ortheziidae, Coccoidea, Matsucoccidae.

The Coccinea include the scale insects, a characteristic group of plant-sucking bugs in which the females have become larviform and generally immobile.

Characters (from Griamldi & Engel 2005, as Coccoidea): Sexual dimorphism extreme: females highly neotenic, larviform, lacking eyes and wings, antennae and legs also usually highly absent; first-instar crawler as dispersal stage. Males lacking mouthparts; hind pair of wings reduced, often to tiny knobs (hamulohalteres).

<==Coccinea [Orthezioidea]
    |  i. s.: Polyclona Menge 1856 K00
    |         Stigmacoccus asper K00
    |         Neomargarodes erythrocephala K00
    |         Kerria [Kerriidae] GE05
    |           `--K. lacca GE05
    |         Permaleurodes GE05
    |         Carayonemidae GE05
    |         Ortheziola vejdovskyi K09
    |--Mesococcus asiaticus Becker-Migdisova in Rodendorf 1962 K00
    `--+--Ortheziidae GE05
       `--+--Coccoidea GE05
          |--Kukaspis Koteja & Poinar 2001 KP01 [Kukaspididae GE05]
          |    `--*K. usingeri Koteja & Poinar 2001 KP01
          |--Steingelia Nassonov 1908 K00 [Steingeliidae GE05]
          |    `--S. cretacea Koteja 2000 K00
          |--Phenacoleachia [Phenacoleachiidae] GE05
          |    `--P. zealandica GE05
          `--+--Matsucoccidae GE05
             `--+--+--Cancerococcus Koteja 1988 K00 [Pityococcidae GE05]
                |  |    `--C. apterus Koteja 1988 K00
                |  `--Electrococcidae GE05
                |       |--Electrococcus Beardsley 1969 K00
                |       |    `--E. canadensis Beardsley 1969 K00
                |       `--Turonicoccus Koteja 2000 K00
                |            |--T. beardsleyi Koteja 2000 K00
                |            `--T. grimaldii Koteja 2000 K00
                `--+--+--Coelostomidiidae [Coelostomidiinae] GE05
                   |  |    |--Coelostomidia zealandica WD04
                   |  |    `--Ultracoelostoma WD04
                   |  |         |--U. assimile WD04
                   |  |         `--U. brittini WD04
                   |  `--+--Jersicoccus Koteja 2000 K00 [Jersicoccidae GE05]
                   |     |    `--J. kurthi Koteja 2000 K00
                   |     `--Monophlebus K00 [Monophlebidae GE05]
                   |          |--M. irregularis Germar & Berendt 1856 K00
                   |          `--M. simplex Scudder 1890 K00
                   `--+--Baisococcus Koteja 1989 K00 [Xylococcidae GE05]
                      |    `--B. victoriae Koteja 1989 K00
                      `--+--Grimaldiella Koteja 2000 K00 [Grimaldiellidae GE05]
                         |    |--G. gregaria Koteja 2000 K00
                         |    `--G. resinophila Koteja 2000 K00
                         `--Margarodidae GE05
                              |--Melaleucococcus nodosus GE05
                              |--Callipappus rubiginosus GE05, B88
                              |--Monophlebulus pilosior ZS10
                              `--Icerya [Iceryini] B88
                                   |--I. aegyptiaca F04
                                   |--I. purchasi B88
                                   `--I. seychellarum B88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F04] Ferrar, P. 2004. Australian entomology: isolated, or in touch with the rest of the world? Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 329-333.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601-646.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187-218.

[KP01] Koteja, J., & G. O. Poinar Jr. 2001. A new family, genus, and species of scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccinea: Kukaspididae, new family) from Cretaceous Alaskan amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 103 (2): 356-363.

[WD04] Wardhaugh, C. W., & R. K. Didham. 2004. The effect of introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Hymenoptera: Vespidae) predation on the dispersive life history stages of beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Homoptera: Margarodidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 91-101.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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