Cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi, from Clemson University.

Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.
Contains: Ortheziidae, Coccoidea, Matsucoccidae.

The Coccinea, scale insects, are a group of plant-sucking bugs in which the females have become larviform and generally immobile. Males are winged and non-feeding at maturity; the hind pair of wings is reduced and may be represented only by a pair of bristle-like structures. First-instar nymphs of both sexes (known as 'crawlers') are highly mobile, dispersing in search of suitable host plants before moulting into the subsequent immobile stage. The earliest definite scale insects are known from the Lower Cretaceous with the status of the Upper Jurassic Mesococcus being uncertain (Koteja 2000).

Characters (from Griamldi & Engel 2005, as Coccoidea): Sexual dimorphism extreme: females highly neotenic, larviform, lacking eyes and wings, antennae and legs also usually highly absent; first-instar crawler as dispersal stage. Males lacking mouthparts; hind pair of wings reduced, often to tiny knobs (hamulohalteres).

<==Coccinea [Coccidomorpha, Coccina, Coccomorpha, Orthezioidea] KP01
    |  i. s.: Polyclona Menge 1856 K00
    |         Neomargarodes erythrocephala K00
    |         Permaleurodes GE05
    |         Carayonemidae GE05
    |         Ortheziola vejdovskyi K09
    |         Lophococcus maximus F09
    |--Mesococcus K00
    |    |--M. asiaticus Becker-Migdisova in Rodendorf 1962 K00
    |    `--M. lutarius Zhang 1985 RJ93
    `--+--Ortheziidae GE05
       `--+--Coccoidea GE05
          |--Kukaspis Koteja & Poinar 2001 KP01 [Kukaspididae GE05]
          |    `--*K. usingeri Koteja & Poinar 2001 KP01
          |--Steingelia Nassonov 1908 K00 [Steingeliidae GE05]
          |    `--S. cretacea Koteja 2000 K00
          |--Phenacoleachia [Phenacoleachiidae] GE05
          |    `--P. zealandica GE05
          `--+--Matsucoccidae GE05
             `--+--+--Cancerococcus Koteja 1988 K00 [Pityococcidae GE05]
                |  |    `--C. apterus Koteja 1988 K00
                |  `--Electrococcidae GE05
                |       |--Electrococcus Beardsley 1969 K00
                |       |    `--E. canadensis Beardsley 1969 K00
                |       `--Turonicoccus Koteja 2000 K00
                |            |--T. beardsleyi Koteja 2000 K00
                |            `--T. grimaldii Koteja 2000 K00
                `--+--+--Coelostomidiidae [Coelostomidiinae] GE05
                   |  |    |--Coelostomidia zealandica WD04
                   |  |    `--Ultracoelostoma WD04
                   |  |         |--U. assimile WD04
                   |  |         `--U. brittini WD04
                   |  `--+--Jersicoccus Koteja 2000 K00 [Jersicoccidae GE05]
                   |     |    `--J. kurthi Koteja 2000 K00
                   |     `--Monophlebus K00 [Monophlebidae GE05]
                   |          |--M. irregularis Germar & Berendt 1856 K00
                   |          `--M. simplex Scudder 1890 K00
                   `--+--Baisococcus Koteja 1989 K00 [Xyloccidae, Xylococcidae GE05]
                      |    `--B. victoriae Koteja 1989 K00
                      `--+--Grimaldiella Koteja 2000 K00 [Grimaldiellidae GE05]
                         |    |--G. gregaria Koteja 2000 K00
                         |    `--G. resinophila Koteja 2000 K00
                         `--Margarodidae GE05
                              |--Melaleucococcus nodosus GE05
                              |--Callipappus rubiginosus GE05, B88
                              |--Monophlebulus pilosior S07
                              |--Auloicerya CGW91
                              |--Nodulicoccus CGW91
                              |--Conifericoccus agathidis CGW91
                              |--Eumargarodes laingi CGW91
                              |--Promargarodes australis CGW91
                              |--Icerya [Iceryini] CGW91
                              |    |--I. aegyptiaca F04
                              |    |--I. colimensis M96
                              |    |--I. littoralis M96
                              |    |    |--I. l. littoralis M96
                              |    |    |--I. l. mimosae M96
                              |    |    `--I. l. tonilensis M96
                              |    |--I. montserratensis M96
                              |    |--I. palmeri M96
                              |    |--I. purchasi S07
                              |    |--I. rileyi M96
                              |    |    |--I. r. rileyi M96
                              |    |    `--I. r. larreae M96
                              |    `--I. seychellarum B88
                              |--Cryptokermes Hempel 1901 M96, H01
                              |    |--*C. brasiliensis Hempel 1901 H01
                              |    `--C. mexicanus M96
                              |--Llaveia M96
                              |    |--L. axin M96
                              |    |--L. mexicanorum M96
                              |    `--L. oaxacoensis M96
                              |--Marchalina azteca M96
                              |--Neosteingelia texana M96
                              |--Protortonia primitiva M96
                              |--Steatococcus M96
                              |    |--S. mexicanus M96
                              |    |--S. morrilli M96
                              |    `--S. tabernicolus M96
                              `--Margarodes hiemalis W87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F04] Ferrar, P. 2004. Australian entomology: isolated, or in touch with the rest of the world? Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 329–333.

[F09] Froggatt, W. W. 1909. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 798.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Hempel, A. 1901. Descriptions of Brazilian Coccidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 110–125.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187–218.

[KP01] Koteja, J., & G. O. Poinar Jr. 2001. A new family, genus, and species of scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccinea: Kukaspididae, new family) from Cretaceous Alaskan amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 103 (2): 356–363.

[M96] Miller, D. R. 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 68–86.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[W87] Walter, D. E. 1987. Belowground arthropods of semiarid grasslands. In: J. L. Capinera (ed.) Integrated Pest Management on Rangeland: A shortgrass prairie perspective pp. 271–290. Westview Press, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado).

[WD04] Wardhaugh, C. W., & R. K. Didham. 2004. The effect of introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Hymenoptera: Vespidae) predation on the dispersive life history stages of beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Homoptera: Margarodidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 91–101.

Last updated: 10 June 2022.

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