Coccinea

Cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi, from Clemson University.


Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.
Contains: Ortheziidae, Coccoidea, Matsucoccidae.

The Coccinea include the scale insects, a characteristic group of plant-sucking bugs in which the females have become larviform and generally immobile. Males are winged and non-feeding at maturity; the hind pair of wings is reduced and may be represented only by a pair of bristle-like structures.

Characters (from Griamldi & Engel 2005, as Coccoidea): Sexual dimorphism extreme: females highly neotenic, larviform, lacking eyes and wings, antennae and legs also usually highly absent; first-instar crawler as dispersal stage. Males lacking mouthparts; hind pair of wings reduced, often to tiny knobs (hamulohalteres).

<==Coccinea [Coccidomorpha, Coccina, Coccomorpha, Orthezioidea] KP01
    |  i. s.: Polyclona Menge 1856 K00
    |         Neomargarodes erythrocephala K00
    |         Permaleurodes GE05
    |         Carayonemidae GE05
    |         Ortheziola vejdovskyi K09
    |         Gascardia destructor DAF07
    |         Lophococcus maximus F09
    |--Mesococcus K00
    |    |--M. asiaticus Becker-Migdisova in Rodendorf 1962 K00
    |    `--M. lutarius Zhang 1985 RJ93
    `--+--Ortheziidae GE05
       `--+--Coccoidea GE05
          |--Kukaspis Koteja & Poinar 2001 KP01 [Kukaspididae GE05]
          |    `--*K. usingeri Koteja & Poinar 2001 KP01
          |--Steingelia Nassonov 1908 K00 [Steingeliidae GE05]
          |    `--S. cretacea Koteja 2000 K00
          |--Phenacoleachia [Phenacoleachiidae] GE05
          |    `--P. zealandica GE05
          `--+--Matsucoccidae GE05
             `--+--+--Cancerococcus Koteja 1988 K00 [Pityococcidae GE05]
                |  |    `--C. apterus Koteja 1988 K00
                |  `--Electrococcidae GE05
                |       |--Electrococcus Beardsley 1969 K00
                |       |    `--E. canadensis Beardsley 1969 K00
                |       `--Turonicoccus Koteja 2000 K00
                |            |--T. beardsleyi Koteja 2000 K00
                |            `--T. grimaldii Koteja 2000 K00
                `--+--+--Coelostomidiidae [Coelostomidiinae] GE05
                   |  |    |--Coelostomidia zealandica WD04
                   |  |    `--Ultracoelostoma WD04
                   |  |         |--U. assimile WD04
                   |  |         `--U. brittini WD04
                   |  `--+--Jersicoccus Koteja 2000 K00 [Jersicoccidae GE05]
                   |     |    `--J. kurthi Koteja 2000 K00
                   |     `--Monophlebus K00 [Monophlebidae GE05]
                   |          |--M. irregularis Germar & Berendt 1856 K00
                   |          `--M. simplex Scudder 1890 K00
                   `--+--Baisococcus Koteja 1989 K00 [Xyloccidae, Xylococcidae GE05]
                      |    `--B. victoriae Koteja 1989 K00
                      `--+--Grimaldiella Koteja 2000 K00 [Grimaldiellidae GE05]
                         |    |--G. gregaria Koteja 2000 K00
                         |    `--G. resinophila Koteja 2000 K00
                         `--Margarodidae GE05
                              |--Melaleucococcus nodosus GE05
                              |--Callipappus rubiginosus GE05, B88
                              |--Monophlebulus pilosior S07
                              |--Auloicerya CGW91
                              |--Nodulicoccus CGW91
                              |--Conifericoccus agathidis CGW91
                              |--Eumargarodes laingi CGW91
                              |--Promargarodes australis CGW91
                              |--Icerya [Iceryini] B88
                              |    |--I. aegyptiaca F04
                              |    |--I. colimensis M96
                              |    |--I. littoralis M96
                              |    |    |--I. l. littoralis M96
                              |    |    |--I. l. mimosae M96
                              |    |    `--I. l. tonilensis M96
                              |    |--I. montserratensis M96
                              |    |--I. palmeri M96
                              |    |--I. purchasi S07
                              |    |--I. rileyi M96
                              |    |    |--I. r. rileyi M96
                              |    |    `--I. r. larreae M96
                              |    `--I. seychellarum B88
                              |--Cryptokermes Hempel 1901 M96, H01
                              |    |--*C. brasiliensis Hempel 1901 H01
                              |    `--C. mexicanus M96
                              |--Llaveia M96
                              |    |--L. axin M96
                              |    |--L. mexicanorum M96
                              |    `--L. oaxacoensis M96
                              |--Marchalina azteca M96
                              |--Neosteingelia texana M96
                              |--Protortonia primitiva M96
                              |--Steatococcus M96
                              |    |--S. mexicanus M96
                              |    |--S. morrilli M96
                              |    `--S. tabernicolus M96
                              `--Margarodes hiemalis W87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DAF07] Department of Agriculture and Food. 2007. Common Seasonal Pests. State of Western Australia.

[F04] Ferrar, P. 2004. Australian entomology: isolated, or in touch with the rest of the world? Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 329–333.

[F09] Froggatt, W. W. 1909. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 798.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Hempel, A. 1901. Descriptions of Brazilian Coccidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 110–125.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187–218.

[KP01] Koteja, J., & G. O. Poinar Jr. 2001. A new family, genus, and species of scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccinea: Kukaspididae, new family) from Cretaceous Alaskan amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 103 (2): 356–363.

[M96] Miller, D. R. 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 68–86.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[W87] Walter, D. E. 1987. Belowground arthropods of semiarid grasslands. In: J. L. Capinera (ed.) Integrated Pest Management on Rangeland: A shortgrass prairie perspective pp. 271–290. Westview Press, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado).

[WD04] Wardhaugh, C. W., & R. K. Didham. 2004. The effect of introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Hymenoptera: Vespidae) predation on the dispersive life history stages of beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Homoptera: Margarodidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 91–101.

Last updated: 8 February 2020.

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