Pseudococcidae

Long-tailed mealy bug Pseudococcus longispinus, photographed by James Castner.


Belongs within: Coccoidea.

The Pseudococcidae include the mealy bugs, named for the thin covering of mealy wax over the body surface of many species. Some species are significant plant pests, such as P. longispinus on citrus and the polyphagous P. affinis (Carver et al. 1991). Many pseudococcids exhibit highly specialised symbioses with ants, who tend them for the honeydew they produce. Malaicoccus formicarii is found in association with the ant species Hypoclinea cuspidatus, and is transported by its host ants between suitable feeding sites. Emerging queens of the ant genus Acropyga carry mealybugs in their mandibles in order to establish a new mealybug 'herd' when establishing a new ant colony (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Female with a combination of dorsal ostioles, ventral circuli, trilocular pores and usually 1-18 pairs of cerarii; anterior and posterior pairs of thoracic spiracles approximately the same size; abdominal spiracles absent; terminal segments of abdomen not fused into pygidium; anal ring often with an outer and an inner row of pores; tubular ducts not cupped at inner end.

<==Pseudococcidae
    |--Trionymus perrisii M83, K09
    |--Trabutina mannipara GE05
    |--Hippeococcus GE05
    |--Malaicococcus formicarii GE05
    |--Electromyrmococcus GE05
    |--Tympanococcus Williams 1967 GML13
    |--Chlorococcus Beardsley 1971 GML13
    |--Clavicoccus erinaceus Ferris in Zimmerman 1948 GML13
    |--Phyllococcus oahuensis GML13
    |--Melanococcus albizziae CGW91
    |--Australicoccus grevilleae CGW91
    |--Hypogeococcus festerianus CGW91
    |--*Ripersiella rumicis M27, WEE70 [=Ripersia rumicis M27]
    |--Tridiscus distichlii WEE70
    |--Mollicoccus Williams 1960 GML13
    |    `--M. guadalcanalanus Williams 1960 GML13
    |--Dysmicoccus MHG04
    |    |--D. brevipes MF07
    |    `--D. neobrevipes MHG04
    |--Phenacoccus LS96 [Phenacoccinae KP01]
    |    |--P. madeirensis TKC07
    |    `--P. manihoti LS96
    |--Antonina WEE70
    |    |--A. bambusae B88
    |    `--A. graminis [incl. A. indica] C81
    |--Rastrococcus GE05
    |    |--R. iceryoides GE05
    |    |--R. invadens MHG04
    |    `--R. spinosus MHG04
    |--Planococcus MHG04
    |    |--P. citri A-G91
    |    |--P. lilacinus MHG04
    |    |--P. minor CGW91
    |    `--P. vovae S07
    `--Pseudococcus Westwood 1840 GML13
         |--*P. longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti 1867) [=Dactylopius longispinus] GML13
         |--P. adonidum B88
         |--P. affinis ZS10
         |--P. anestios Williams 1985 GML13
         |--P. calceolariae CGW91 [=Trechocorys calceolariae K08]
         |--P. chenopodii Williams 1985 GML13
         |--P. citri ZS10
         |--P. comstocki M47
         |--P. crotonis G17
         |--P. epidendrus Williams 1985 GML13
         |--P. eremosus Williams 1985 GML13
         |--P. gahani A71
         |--P. maritima A71
         |--P. markharveyi Gullan in Gullan, Moir & Leng 2013 GML13
         `--P. nipae F37

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A-G91] Al-Gboory, J. I. 1991. Biology of oriental citrus mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) on different citrus species. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 607–611. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213–232.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F37] Ford, C. 1937. Minutes of the 481st regular meeting of the Entomological Society of Washington. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (4): 88–90.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59–71).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[GML13] Gullan, P. J., M. L. Moir & M. C. Leng. 2013. A new species of mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from critically endangered Banksia montana in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 28 (1): 13–20.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[KP01] Koteja, J., & G. O. Poinar Jr. 2001. A new family, genus, and species of scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccinea: Kukaspididae, new family) from Cretaceous Alaskan amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 103 (2): 356–363.

[LS96] Levins, R., & B. B. Schultz. 1996. Effects of density dependence, feedback and environmental sensitivity on correlations among predators, prey and plant resources: Models and practical implications. Journal of Animal Ecology 65: 802–812.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263–288.

[MF07] Moraes, G. J. de, & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2007. Phytophagous mites of tropical crops in eastern South America. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 279–288. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[M27] Myers, J. G. 1927. On the nomenclature of New Zealand Homoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 685–690.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[TKC07] Tixier, M.-S., S. Kreiter & B. Cheval. 2007. Vineyard colonisation by predaceous mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) living in surrounding vegetation. A three year study in the south of France. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 475–487. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 2 February 2019.

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