Queen hornet Vespa crabro, photographed by Markus Flath.

Belongs within: Vespidae.

The Vespinae are a group of social wasps, including hornets and yellowjackets, in which most species have queens that are distinctly larger than their colony's workers.

<==Vespinae HH07
    |--Dolichovespula Rohwer 1916 HH07, C85
    |    `--D. maculata HH07
    |--Provespa Ashmead 1903 NK11
    |    |--P. anomala (de Saussure 1854) NK11
    |    |--P. barthelemyi (du Buysson 1905) NK11
    |    `--P. nocturna van der Vecht 1935 NK11
    |--Vespula Thomson 1869 NK11
    |    |  i. s.: V. austriaca (Panzer 1799) NK11
    |    |         V. flaviceps (Smith 1870) NK11
    |    |         V. kingdonwardi Archer 1981 NK11
    |    |         V. koreensis (Radoszkowsk 1887) NK11
    |    |         V. lewisii SS99
    |    |         V. maculata (Linnaeus 1763) [=Vespa maculata] BM76
    |    |         V. maculifrons HH07
    |    |         V. nursei Archer 1981 NK11
    |    |         V. orbata du Buysson 1902 NK11
    |    |         V. pensylvanica MG06
    |    |         V. rufa A71
    |    |         V. squamosa HH07
    |    `--V. (Paravespula Blüthgen 1938) C85
    |         |--V. (*P.) vulgaris (Linnaeus 1758) [=Vespa vulgaris, Dolichovespula (*P.) vulgaris] C85
    |         `--V. (P.) germanica (Fabricius 1793) [=Vespa germanica] C85
    `--Vespa Linnaeus 1758 NK11
         |--V. affinis (Linnaeus 1764) NK11
         |--V. analis Fabricius 1775 NK11
         |--V. auraria Smith 1852 NK11
         |--V. basalis Smith 1852 NK11
         |--V. bellicosa de Saussure 1854 NK11
         |--V. bicolor Fabricius 1787 NK11
         |--V. biglumis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. binghami du Buysson 1905 NK11
         |--V. calida Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. canadensis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. crabro Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. dorylloides B03
         |--V. ducalis Smith 18523 NK11
         |--V. dybowskii André 1884 NK11
         |--V. emarginata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. fercida Smith 1858 NK11
         |--V. flavescens Fabricius 1775 [=Bembex flavescens] BM76
         |--V. fumida van der Vecht 1959 NK11
         |--V. luctuosa de Saussure 1854 NK11
         |--V. mandarina Smith 1852 NK11
         |--V. mocsaryana du Buysson 1905 NK11
         |--V. multimaculata Pérez 1910 NK11
         |--V. orientalis D02
         |--V. philippinensis de Saussure 1854 NK11
         |--V. rufa Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. rupestris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. saxonica MS01
         |--V. sibirica MS01
         |--V. soror du Buysson 1905 NK11
         |--V. sylvestris MS01
         |--V. tropica (Linnaeus 1758) NK11
         |--V. velutina NK11
         `--V. vivax Smith 1870 NK11

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[D02] Donovan, B. J. 2002. Description of Sphecophaga orientalis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae), a potential parasitoid of Vespula spp. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 3–15.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295–3299.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NK11] Nicholas, A. S., J. Kojima, M. Y. Ruslan, M. Fauzi & A. B. Idris. 2011. A list of social vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from Kuala Lompat, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 59–74.

[SS99] Stein, G. M., G. Schaller, U. Pfüller, M. Wagner, B. Wagner, M. Schietzel & A. Büssing. 1999. Characterisation of granulocyte stimulation by thionins from European mistletoe and from wheat. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1426: 80–90.

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