Paragia vespiformis, from Carpenter (1996).

Belongs within: Vespidae.

The Masarinae, pollen wasps, are a group of wasps found primarily on the southern continents that provision their nests with pollen and nectar. They can be distinguished from other vespids by the lack of a trochantellus on the mid femur.

<==Masarinae [Masaridae, Masarides] HH07
    |--Gayellini [Gayellinae] C96
    `--Masarini C96
         |--Ceramius Latreille 1810 C96, S86
         |    |--C. beyeri C96
         |    |--C. caffer OK99
         |    |--C. capicola R13
         |    |--C. hispanicus RL09
         |    |--C. karooensis R13
         |    |--C. lichtensteinii GS61
         |    |    |--C. l. lichtensteinii GS61
         |    |    `--C. l. macrocephalus Saussure 1855 GS61
         |    `--C. metanotalis OK99
         `--+--Masaris L02 [Masarina C96]
            |    |--M. aegyptiacus PK17
            |    |--M. carli C96
            |    `--M. vespiforms L02
            `--Paragiina [Paragiini] C96
                 |--Ceramiopsis Zavattari 1910 S86
                 |--Metaparagia Meade-Waldo 1911 (see below for synonymy) C96
                 |    |--+--M. maculata (Meade-Waldo 1910) C96, C85 [=Paragia maculata C85, *Rolandia maculata C85]
                 |    |  `--+--*M. pictifrons (Smith 1857) S86, C96, S86 [=Paragia pictifrons S86]
                 |    |     `--M. doddi Meade-Waldo 1911 C96, S86 [=Paragia doddi C85]
                 |    `--+--+--M. confluens (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=Paragia confluens C96, Riekia confluens C96]
                 |       |  `--M. nocatunga (Richards 1962) C96, C85 [=*Riekia nocatunga C85]
                 |       `--+--M. hua (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=*Ammoparagia hua S86]
                 |          `--+--M. borreriae (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=Rolandia borreriae S86]
                 |             `--+--M. angulata (Richards 1968) C96, S86 [=Riekia angulata S86, Rolandia angulata S86]
                 |                `--M. houstoni (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=Rolandia houstoni S86]
                 `--Paragia Shuckard 1837 (see below for synonymy) C96
                      |--*P. decipiens Shuckard 1837 S86
                      |    |--P. d. decipiens C85
                      |    `--P. d. aliciae Richards 1962 C85
                      |--P. australis Saussure 1853 [=P. (Paragiella) australis] C85
                      |    |--P. a. australis C85
                      |    `--P. a. borealis Richards 1962 C85
                      |--P. bicolor Saussure 1853 [=P. (Paragiella) bicolor] C85
                      |--P. calida Smith 1865 [=P. (Paragiella) calida] C85
                      |--P. deceptrix Smith 1862 [=P. deceptor, [=P. (Paragiella) deceptrix] C85
                      |--P. generosa Richards 1962 [=P. (Paragiella) generosa] C85
                      |--P. hirsuta Meade-Waldo 1911 [=P. (Paragiella) hirsuta] C85
                      |--P. magdalena Turner 1908 [=P. (Paragiella) magdalena] C85
                      |--P. mimetica Richards 1968 [=P. (Paragiella) mimetica] C85
                      |--P. monocesta Snelling 1986 S86
                      |--P. morosa Smith 1868 [=P. (Paragiella) morosa] C85
                      |--P. nasuta Smith 1868 [=P. (Paragiella) nasuta] C85
                      |--P. odyneroides Smith 1850 (see below for synonymy) C85
                      |--P. oligomera Snelling 1986 S86
                      |--P. perkinsi Meade-Waldo 1911 [=P. (Paragiella) perkinsi] C85
                      |--P. propodealis Richards 1968 [=P. (Paragiella) propodealis] C85
                      |--P. schulthessi Turner 1936 C85
                      |--P. smithii Saussure 1854 C85
                      |--P. sobrina Smith 1869 [=P. (Paragiella) sobrina; incl. P. excellens Smith 1869] C85
                      |--P. tricolor Smith 1850 [=P. saussurii Smith 1857] C85
                      |--P. venusta Smith 1865 [=P. (Paragiella) venusta; incl. P. concinna Smith 1868] C85
                      |--P. vespiformis Smith 1865 [=P. (*Cygnaea) vespiformis] S86
                      `--P. walkeri Meade-Waldo 1910 [=P. (Paragiella) walkeri] C85

Masarinae incertae sedis:
  Trimeria C96
    |--T. americana C96
    |--T. howardi CC85
    `--T. rhachiphora HH07
  Pseudomasaris HH07
    |--P. phaceliae HH07
    `--P. vespoides JB13
  Celonites Latreille 1802 L02
    |--*C. apiformis [=Masaris apiformis] L02
    |--C. cyprius C96
    `--C. varipennis C96
  Masarina Richards 1962 G05
    |--M. aptosimi Gess 2005 G05
    |--M. ceres G05
    |--M. familiaris G05
    |--M. hermanniae Gess 2005 G05
    |--M. hyalinipennis G05
    |--M. mixta G05
    |--M. mixtoides G05
    |--M. namaqua G05
    |--M. parvula G05
    |--M. peliostomi G05
    |--M. roberti Gess 2005 G05
    |--M. strucki G05
    `--M. tylecodoni G05

Metaparagia Meade-Waldo 1911 [incl. Ammoparagia Snelling 1986, Riekia Richards 1962, Rolandia Richards 1962] C96

Paragia Shuckard 1837 [incl. Alpha Dalla Tore 1904 non Saussure 1854, Beta Dalla Torre 1904 non Saussure 1854, Cygnaea Richards 1962, Paragiella Richards 1962] C96

Paragia odyneroides Smith 1850 [=P. (*Paragiella) odyneroides; incl. P. bidens Saussure 1855, P. praedator Saussure 1855] C85

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[C96] Carpenter, J. M. 1996. Generic classification of the Australian pollen wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Masarinae. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 69 (4 suppl.): 384–400.

[CC85] Carpenter, J. M., & J. M. Cumming. 1985. A character analysis of the North American potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Eumeninae). Journal of Natural History 19 (5): 877–916.

[G05] Gess, F. W. 2005. Three new species of Masarina Richards, 1962 from southern Africa with a key to all species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Masarinae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 7–14.

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440–451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295–3299.

[JB13] Johnson, B. R., M. L. Borowiec, J. C. Chiu, E. K. Lee, J. Atallah & P. S. Ward. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[OK99] OConnor, B. M., & J. S. H. Klompen. 1999. Phylogenetic perspectives on mite-insect associations: the evolution of acarinaria. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 63–71. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[RL09] Ren, D., C. C. Labandeira, J. A. Santiago-Blay, A. Rasnitsyn, C. Shih, A. Bashkuev, M. A. V. Logan, C. L. Hotton & D. Dilcher. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840–847.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[S86] Snelling, R. R. 1986. The taxonomy and nomenclature of some Australian paragiine wasps (Hymenoptera: Masaridae). Contributions in Science 378: 1–19.

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