Phlaeothripidae

Short-winged female of Bagnalliella yuccae, from Thrips of California.


Belongs within: Thysanoptera.
Contains: Pygothripina, Allothripina, Diceratothripina, Macrothripina, Idolothripini, Gastrothrips, Compsothrips, Bolothrips, Hoplothripini, Docessissophothripini, Glyptothripini, Hyidiothripini, Plectrothripini, Urothripini, Williamsiellina, Phlaeothripini, Apelaunothripini, Haplothrips, Apterygothrips, Karnyothrips, Leptothrips.

The Phlaeothripidae are a diverse lineage of thrips, characterised by the modification of the last abdominal segment into a tube. They are divided between two subfamilies, the Idolothripinae and Phlaeothripinae. The Idolothripinae have relatively broad maxillary stylets, at least 5 µm in diameter, and feed on whole fungal spores. The Phlaeothripinae usually have narrower stylets (usually 2 or 3 µm) and are more diverse in diet. The classification of the phlaeothripids is currently in a state of flux; many of the previously recognised subtaxa, particularly within the Phlaeothripinae, are probably not monophyletic.

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Abdominal tergite X forming an enclosed tube in both sexes, although excavate ventrally at the base in males and variously swollen in some species; sternite VIII similar in structure to sternite VII, female with an eversible chute-like ovipositor; forewings, when present, without longitudinal veins or veinal setae, surface without microtrichia, marginal cilia not arising from sockets.

<==Phlaeothripidae [Phloeothripomorpha, Tubulifera]
    |  i. s.: Adrothrips P60
    |         Hannibalia Girault 1928 P60, G28b
    |           `--*H. priscus Girault 1928 G28b
    |         Rohrthrips libanicus PL12
    |--Idolothripinae [Cryptothripini, Idolothripidae, Megathripidae, Megathripinae, Pygothripini] MP83
    |    |  i. s.: Pinaceothrips Yakhontov 1956 MP83
    |    |--Pygothripina MP83
    |    |--Allothripina MP83
    |    `--+--Diceratothripina MP83
    |       |--+--Macrothripina MP83
    |       |  `--Idolothripini MP83
    |       `--+--Gastrothrips MP83
    |          `--Compsothripina [Compsothripinae, Compsothripini] MP83
    |               |--Compsothrips MM96
    |               |--Bolothrips MP83
    |               |--Anaglyptothrips Mound & Palmer 1983 MP83
    |               |    `--*A. dugdalei Mound & Palmer 1983 MP83
    |               |--Illinothrips Stannard 1954 MP83, MM96
    |               |    `--*I. rossi Stannard 1954 MM96
    |               `--Loyolaia Ananthakrishnan 1964 MP83
    |                    `--*L. indica Ananthakrishnan 1964 MP83
    `--Phlaeothripinae R-SN07
         |  i. s.: Jersonithrips Retana-Salazar & Nishida 2007 R-SN07
         |           `--*J. galligenus Retana-Salazar & Nishida 2007 R-SN07
         |         Iotatubothrips M04
         |           |--I. crozieri M04
         |           `--I. kranzae M04
         |         Phallothrips houstoni M04
         |         Acrosothrips Stannard 1963 MM96
         |           `--*A. asymmetricus (Watson 1937) [=Trichothrips asymmetricus] MM96
         |         Senarioliothrips Johansen 1981 MM96
         |           `--*S. infrequentis Johansen 1981 MM96
         |         Torvothrips Johansen 1979 MM96
         |           |--*T. atrox Johansen 1979 MM96
         |           |--T. kosztarebi Johansen 1980 MM96
         |           |--T. martinezi Johansen 1980 MM96
         |           |--T. penetrans Johansen 1980 MM96
         |           `--T. tremendus (Johansen 1978) [=Rhynchothrips tremendus] MM96
         |         Pseudophilothrips Johansen 1979 MM96
         |           |--*P. moundi Johansen 1979 MM96
         |           |--P. amabilis Johansen 1981 MM96
         |           |--P. fugitivus (Johansen 1983) [=Phrasterothrips fugitivus] MM96
         |           `--P. ichini (Hood 1949) [=Liothrips ichini] MM96
         |         Pistillothrips Johansen 1982 MM96
         |           `--*P. guadalupae Johansen 1982 MM96
         |         Chortothrips Hood 1957 MM96
         |           `--*C. valens (Hood 1950) [=Eurythrips valens] MM96
         |         Chthonothrips Hood 1957 MM96
         |           `--*C. nigrocinctus Hood 1957 MM96
         |         Blepharidothrips Hood 1952 MM96
         |           `--*B. sphaerops Hood 1952 MM96
         |         Hansonthrips Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           |--*H. drymus Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           `--H. selvae Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |         Cartomothrips Stannard 1962 MM96
         |           |--*C. browni Stannard 1962 MM96
         |           `--C. manukae AY04
         |         Trypanothrips Hood 1957 MM96
         |           `--*T. coxalis Hood 1957 MM96
         |         Diphyothrips Stannard 1963 MM96
         |           `--*D. morainensis Stannard 1963 MM96
         |         Pygmaeothrips Karny 1920 [incl. Micropsothrips De Santis 1950, Polyporothrips Watson 1927] MM96
         |           |--P. angusticeps (Hood 1908) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |           `--P. quadritibia Girault 1927 G27a
         |         Godoythrips Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           `--*G. asketus Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |         Amynothrips O’Neill 1968 MM96
         |           `--*A. andersoni O’Neill 1968 MM96
         |         Xeroleptothrips Johansen 1982 MM96
         |           `--*X. tehuacanensis Johansen 1982 MM96
         |         Gomphiothrips Moulton 1933 MM96
         |           |--*G. tibouchinae Moulton 1933 MM96
         |           `--G. mercedes Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |         Mixothrips Stannard 1968 MM96
         |           |--*M. craigheadi Stannard 1968 MM96
         |           `--M. nakaharai Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |         Pleurothrips Hood 1957 MM96
         |           `--*P. collaris (Hood 1925) [=Eurythrips collaris] MM96
         |         Domatiathrips Mound 1993 MM96
         |           `--*D. cunninghamii Mound 1993 MM96
         |         Teuchothrips burroughsi (Girault 1929) MP83, G29a [=Dichaetothrips burroughsi MP83]
         |         Akainothrips pallicornis [=Adiaphorothrips pallicornis] MP83
         |         ‘Cryptothrips’ additamentus MP83
         |         ‘Cryptothrips’ bursariae Karny 1916 MP83, GM79
         |         ‘Cryptothrips’ longicaput Girault 1927 MP83, G27c
         |         ‘Cryptothrips’ nigronympha Girault 1928 MP83, G28a
         |         ‘Cryptothrips’ pusillus MP83
         |         ‘Cryptothrips’ rufiprothorax Girault 1929 MP83, G29b
         |         ‘Cryptothrips’ schilleri Girault 1927 MP83, G27c
         |--+--Hoplothripini MM96
         |  `--Leeuweniini MM96
         |       |--Leeuwenia P60
         |       |--Hoodiella P60
         |       |--Hystricothripoides P60
         |       |--Mametiella P60
         |       `--Proleeuwenia P60
         |--+--Docessissophothripini MM96
         |  |--Glyptothripini MM96
         |  |--Hyidiothripini MM96
         |  |--Plectrothripini MM96
         |  |--Urothripini MM96
         |  |--Williamsiellina MM96
         |  |--Phlaeothripini MM96
         |  `--Apelaunothripini MM96
         `--Haplothripini P60
              |--Haplothrips MM96
              |--Anchylothrips P60
              |--Androthrips niger Girault 1927 P60, G27b
              |--Apterygothrips P60
              |--Aulothrips P60
              |--Chiraplothrips P60
              |--Dolicholepta P60
              |--Dolichothrips P60
              |--Elatea P60
              |--Euryaplothrips P60
              |--Gigaplothrips P60
              |--Hadothrips P60
              |--Karnyothrips P60
              |--Leptothrips P60
              |--Melampodothrips P60
              |--Praepodothrips P60
              |--Priesneria P60
              |--Talitha P60
              |--Tetragonothrips P60
              |--Trybomiella P60
              |--Craniothrips Bagnall 1915 P60, MM96
              |    `--*C. urichi Bagnall 1915 MM96
              |--Epomisothrips Hood 1954 P60, MM96
              |    `--*E. araucariae Hood 1954 MM96
              |--Goniothrips Hood 1927 P60, MM96
              |    `--*G. denticornis Hood 1927 MM96
              |--Bagnalliella Karny 1920 P60, MM96
              |    |--*B. yuccae [=Cephalothrips yuccae] MM96
              |    `--B. nigricoxa Girault 1929 G29b
              |--Antillothrips Stannard 1957 P60, MM96
              |    |--A. cingulatus (Hood 1919) [=Zygothrips cingulatus; incl. *A. graminatus] MM96
              |    |--A. exastis MM96
              |    |--A. hartwigi Pitkin 1977 MM96
              |    `--A. speciosus (Hood 1925) [=Zygothrips speciosus] MM96
              |--Podothrips Hood 1913 P60, MM96
              |    |--*P. semiflavus Hood 1913 MM96
              |    |--P. bambusae Hood 1949 MM96
              |    |--P. bituberculatus Girault 1927 G27a
              |    |--P. brasiliensis Hood 1949 MM96
              |    `--P. paraensis Hood 1952 [=Hexagoniothrips paraensis] MM96
              |--Zaliothrips Hood 1938 P60, MM96
              |    |--*Z. citripes Hood 1938 MM96
              |    |--Z. abdominalis Hood 1954 MM96
              |    |--Z. imitator Hood 1956 MM96
              |    |--Z. longisetosus Hood 1956 MM96
              |    |--Z. luteolus Hood 1956 MM96
              |    `--Z. nigripes Hood 1938 MM96
              `--Agrothrips Jacot-Guillarmod 1939 P60, MM96
                   |--*A. priesneri Jacot-Guillarmod 1939 MM96
                   |--A. arenicola (Hood 1939) [=Karnyothrips arenicola] MM96
                   |--A. dimidiatus (Hood 1939) [=Watsoniella dimidiata] MM96
                   |--A. omani (Crawford 1947) [=Haplothrips omani] MM96
                   |--A. pallidus (Hood 1912) [=Zygothrips pallidus] MM96
                   |--A. tantillus Stannard 1958 MM96
                   `--A. tenebricosus (Priesner 1925) [=Haplothrips tenebricosus] MM96

Pygmaeothrips angusticeps (Hood 1908) MM96 [=Trichothrips angusticeps MM96; incl. Poecilothrips biformis Moulton 1934 MM96, *Pygmaeothrips columniceps Karny 1920 MM96, Hoplothrips dallasi Moulton 1933 MM96, Py. ferecaecus Priesner 1929 MM96, *Micropsothrips ganodermae De Santis 1950 MM96, *Polyporothrips longipilosus Watson 1927 MM96, Liothrips priscus MM96, L. silvifilia Girault 1927 MM96, G27c] MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under'—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[G27a] Girault, A. A. 1927a. Some new wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 208-210).

[G27b] Girault, A. A. 1927b. New Australian animals so far overlooked by outsiders. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 211-212).

[G27c] Girault, A. A. 1927c. Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 214-215).

[G28a] Girault, A. A. 1928a. Some Insecta and a new All Highness. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 225-228).

[G28b] Girault, A. A. 1928b. Notice of a curious professor and of native wasps and wood lice. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 229-232).

[G29a] Girault, A. A. 1929a. North American Hymenoptera Mymaridae. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 233-261).

[G29b] Girault, A. A. 1929b. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262-265).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera—biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248-257.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[MP83] Mound, L. A. & J. M. Palmer. 1983. The generic and tribal classification of spore-feeding Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (1): 1-174.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623-8628.

[P60] Priesner, H. 1960. Das System der Tubulifera (Thysanoptera). Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 13: 283-296.

[R-SN07] Retana-Salazar, A. P., & K. Nishida. 2007. First gall-inducing thrips on Elaphoglossum ferns: a new genus and species of thrips, Jersonithrips galligenus from Costa Rica (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 143-148.

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