Eupathithrips dentipes, from Bagnall (1908).

Belongs within: Thripida.
Contains: Macrophthalmothrips, Glyptothripini, Hyidiothripini, Plectrothripini, Apelaunothripini, Sophiothrips, Williamsiella, Urothripini, Idolothripinae, Docessissophothripini, Stictothripina, Haplothripini, Hoplothripini, Psalidothrips, Mesothrips, Acanthothrips, Hoplandrothrips, Malacothrips.

The Phlaeothripidae are a diverse lineage of thrips characterised by the modification of the last abdominal segment into a tube. They have been divided between two subfamilies, the Idolothripinae and Phlaeothripinae, primarily on the basis of the width of the maxillary stylets (broader in Idolothripinae than Phlaeothripinae). However, molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the 'Phlaeothripinae' are paraphyletic relative to the Idolothripinae (Buckman et al. 2013). The 'Phlaeothripinae' were divided between numerous tribes by Priesner (1960) but many of the taxa he recognised are probably not monophyletic, being primarily distinguished by the absence of specialised features found in other tribes. Subsequent authors (e.g. Mound & Marullo 1996) have suggested the existence of three major 'phlaeothripine' lineages: the primarily hyphal-feeding 'Phlaeothrips lineage', the flower-feeding 'Haplothrips lineage', and the leaf-feeding 'Liothrips' lineage. Though molecular analysis supports monophyly of the Haplothrips and Liothrips lineages, it does not support the Phlaeothrips lineage (Buckman et al. 2013). As the Idolothripinae are also fungal feeders, these habits are probably plesiomorphic for the Phlaeothripidae as a whole.

The Williamsiellina are a group of thrips primarily associated with mosses. They usually have the maxillary stylets widely separated when retracted (except in two species of Lissothrips); the stylets are retracted deeply in Lissothrips, but are very low in Williamsiella. The maxillary stylets probably retract about halfway into the head in Pueblothrips minuta, which is only known from the type series in which the stylets are probably not in the resting position (Mound & Marullo 1996). The Mesothripina are characterised by large eyes and a basally constricted head, with wings narrowly constricted towards the middle and parallel-sided from the middle to the apex (Priesner 1960).

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Abdominal tergite X forming an enclosed tube in both sexes, although excavate ventrally at the base in males and variously swollen in some species; sternite VIII similar in structure to sternite VII, female with an eversible chute-like ovipositor; forewings, when present, without longitudinal veins or veinal setae, surface without microtrichia, marginal cilia not arising from sockets.

Phlaeothripidae [Acanthothripini, Phlaeothripinae, Phlaeothripini, Phloeothripomorpha, Tubulifera]
    |--Williamsiellina P60
    |    |--Sophiothrips BMW13
    |    |--Williamsiella MM96
    |    `--Pueblothrips Stannard 1950 P60, MM96
    |         `--*P. minuta Stannard 1950 MM96
    `--+--Urothripini BMW13
       `--+--Idolothripinae BMW13
          `--+--+--Adrothrips Moulton 1942 BMW13, M70
             |  |    |--*A. aureus Moulton 1942 M70
             |  |    |--A. akanthus Mound 1970 M70
             |  |    |--A. cotteri Mound 1970 M70
             |  |    |--A. intermedius (Bianchi 1945) [=Scopaeothrips intermedius] M70
             |  |    `--A. systenus Mound 1970 M70
             |  `--Docessissophothripini BMW13
             `--+--Stictothripina BMW13
                `--+--+--Haplothripini BMW13
                   |  `--+--Cartomothrips Stannard 1962 BMW13, MM96
                   |     |    |--*C. browni Stannard 1962 MM96
                   |     |    `--C. manukae AY04
                   |     `--Thorybothripina MM96
                   |          |--Thorybothrips Priesner 1924 MM96
                   |          |    |--T. unicolor [=Cryptothrips unicolor; incl. *T. graminis Priesner 1924] MM96
                   |          |    `--T. yuccae MM96
                   |          `--Treherniella Watson 1924 BMW13, MM96
                   |               |--T. amplipennis (Morgan 1913) (see below for synonymy) MM96
                   |               `--T. atrata De Santis 1963 MM96
                   `--+--Hoplothripini BMW13
                      `--+--Mesothripina A78
                         |    |--Euoplothrips P60
                         |    |    |--E. bagnalli A78
                         |    |    |--E. buxtoni A78
                         |    |    |--E. crassipes A78
                         |    |    |--E. incognitus A78
                         |    |    `--E. uncinatus A78
                         |    |--Glenothrips P60
                         |    |--Logadothrips P60
                         |    |--Paramesothrips P60
                         |    |--Phylladothrips P60
                         |    |--Psalidothrips P60
                         |    |--Mesothrips P60
                         |    |--Mesandrothrips inquilinus A78
                         |    |--Moultonoides geijerae A78
                         |    `--Sacothrips BMW13
                         |         |--S. bicolor A78
                         |         |--S. catheter BMW13
                         |         |--S. corycidis A78
                         |         |--S. galbus A78
                         |         |--S. ingens A78
                         |         `--S. milvus A78
                         `--Phlaeothripina P60
                              |--Acanthothrips P60
                              |--Bamboosiella P60
                              |--Cryptaplothrips P60
                              |--Gluphothrips P60
                              |--Gynoplothrips P60
                              |--Hoplandrothrips BMW13
                              |--Malacothrips P60
                              |--Odontinothrips P60
                              |--Ormothrips P60
                              |--Phlaeobiothrips P60
                              |--Pselaphothrips P60
                              |--Phlaeothrips Haliday 1836 GM79
                              |    |--*P. coriaceus MM96
                              |    `--P. okamatoi (Karny 1913) [=Cryptothrips okamatoi] MP83
                              |--Sedulothrips Bagnall 1915 P60, MM96
                              |    |--S. vigilans (Hood 1913) (see below for synonymy) MM96
                              |    `--S. tristis Hood 1933 MM96
                              |--Ecacanthothrips P60
                              |    |--E. io Girault 1930 G30
                              |    |--E. sanguineus A61 (see below for synonymy)
                              |    `--E. tibialis MDT13
                              |--Poecilothrips Uzel 1895 P60, MM96
                              |    |--*P. albopictus Uzel 1895 [incl. P. harrisoni, P. lupini, P. ornatus] MM96
                              |    |--P. dens (Moulton 1907) [=Trichothrips dens] MM96
                              |    `--P. nubilus MM96
                              |--Pristothrips Hood 1925 P60, MM96 [incl. Celetothrips Morgan 1929 MM96]
                              |    |--*P. aaptus Hood 1925 MM96
                              |    |--P. albipunctatus Hood 1925 (see below for synonymy) MM96
                              |    `--P. pollostus Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
                              `--Eupathithrips Bagnall 1908 P60, MM96 (see below for synonymy)
                                   |--*E. dentipes Bagnall 1908 MM96
                                   |--E. affinis Bagnall 1915 [incl. E. bagnalli Morgan 1929] MM96
                                   |--E. atripes Hood 1950 MM96
                                   |--E. meizon Hood 1955 MM96
                                   |--E. panscopus Hood 1938 MM96
                                   `--E. silvestrii (Buffa 1908) (see below for synonymy) MM96

Phlaeothripidae incertae sedis:
  Hannibalia Girault 1928 P60, G28
    `--*H. priscus Girault 1928 G28
  Rohrthrips libanicus PL12
  Jersonithrips Retana-Salazar & Nishida 2007 R-SN07
    `--*J. galligenus Retana-Salazar & Nishida 2007 R-SN07
  Iotatubothrips M04b
    |--I. crozieri M04b
    `--I. kranzae M04b
  Phallothrips houstoni M04b
  Acrosothrips Stannard 1963 MM96
    `--*A. asymmetricus (Watson 1937) [=Trichothrips asymmetricus] MM96
  Senarioliothrips Johansen 1981 MM96
    `--*S. infrequentis Johansen 1981 MM96
  Torvothrips Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--*T. atrox Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--T. kosztarebi Johansen 1980 MM96
    |--T. martinezi Johansen 1980 MM96
    |--T. penetrans Johansen 1980 MM96
    `--T. tremendus (Johansen 1978) [=Rhynchothrips tremendus] MM96
  Pseudophilothrips Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--*P. moundi Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--P. amabilis Johansen 1981 MM96
    |--P. fugitivus (Johansen 1983) [=Phrasterothrips fugitivus] MM96
    `--P. ichini (Hood 1949) [=Liothrips ichini] MM96
  Pistillothrips Johansen 1982 MM96
    `--*P. guadalupae Johansen 1982 MM96
  Chortothrips Hood 1957 MM96
    `--*C. valens (Hood 1950) [=Eurythrips valens] MM96
  Chthonothrips Hood 1957 MM96
    `--*C. nigrocinctus Hood 1957 MM96
  Blepharidothrips Hood 1952 MM96
    `--*B. sphaerops Hood 1952 MM96
  Hansonthrips Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--*H. drymus Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    `--H. selvae Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
  Trypanothrips Hood 1957 MM96
    `--*T. coxalis Hood 1957 MM96
  Diphyothrips Stannard 1963 MM96
    `--*D. morainensis Stannard 1963 MM96
  Godoythrips Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    `--*G. asketus Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
  Amynothrips O’Neill 1968 MM96
    `--*A. andersoni O’Neill 1968 MM96
  Xeroleptothrips Johansen 1982 MM96
    `--*X. tehuacanensis Johansen 1982 MM96
  Gomphiothrips Moulton 1933 MM96
    |--*G. tibouchinae Moulton 1933 MM96
    `--G. mercedes Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
  Pleurothrips Hood 1957 MM96
    `--*P. collaris (Hood 1925) [=Eurythrips collaris] MM96
  Domatiathrips Mound 1993 MM96
    `--*D. cunninghamii Mound 1993 MM96
  Akainothrips MP83
    |--A. asketus M13
    |--A. dubitalis M13
    |--A. exourus M13
    `--A. ireneae M13
  Thilakothrips [Thilakothripina] P60
    `--T. babuli A78
  Macrophthalmothrips MDT13
  Aleurodothrips Franklin 1909 MM96 [Aleurodothripina P60]
    |--*A. fasciapennis (Franklin 1908) [=Cryptothrips fasciapennis] MM96
    `--A. fasciiventris Girault 1927 G27
  Glyptothripini MM96
  Hyidiothripini MDT13
  Plectrothripini MDT13
  Apelaunothripini MDT13
  Klambothrips Mound & Morris 2007 M08
    |--*K. myopori Mound & Morris 2007 M08
    |--K. annulosus [=Teuchothrips annulosus] M08
    |--K. oleariae M08
    `--K. walsinghami [=Teuchothrips walsinghami] M08
  Callococcithrips Mound & Wells 2007 M08
    |--*C. fuscipennis (Moulton 1968) [=Rhynchothrips fuscipennis] M08
    `--C. atratus [=Liothrips atratus] M08
  Majerthrips Mound & Minaei 2006 T13
    `--M. barrowi Mound & Minaei 2006 T13
  Senithrips Mound & Minaei 2006 T13
    `--S. psomus Mound & Minaei 2006 T13
  Brakothrips stenos M13
  Stomothrips MDT13
    |--S. cycasi MDT13
    `--S. mouldeni MDT13
  Corroboreethrips MDT13
  Ostlingothrips corini M13
  Deplorothrips MDT13
  Azaleothrips lepidus MDT13
  Bocathrips okajimai MDT13, TM13
  Solomonthrips MDT13
    |--S. australiensis MDT13
    `--S. brooksi MDT13
  Apostlethrips MDT13
    |--A. apostus MDT13
    `--A. pygus MDT13
  Zemiathrips MDT13
    |--Z. anatolis MDT13
    |--Z. biseta MDT13
    |--Z. greensladeae MDT13
    |--Z. triseta MDT13
    `--Z. uptoni MDT13
  Yarnkothrips kolourus MDT13
  Hapsidothrips Mamet 1967 M04a
    `--H. curtispinis M04a
  Maurithrips Mamet 1967 M04a
    `--M. spinulosus M04a

Ecacanthothrips sanguineus A61 [incl. E. bryanti Bagnall 1915 A61, GM79, E. coxalis A61, E. erythrinus A61, E. flavipes A61, E. fletcheri A61, E. priesneri A61, E. ramakrishnai A61, E. steinskyi A61]

Eupathithrips Bagnall 1908 P60, MM96 [incl. Heterothrips Buffa 1908 non Hood 1908 MM96, Polyommatothrips Buffa 1909 MM96]

Eupathithrips silvestrii (Buffa 1908) [=*Heterothrips silvestrii, *Polyommatothrips silvestrii; incl. Eupathithrips spectator Hood 1934] MM96

Pristothrips albipunctatus Hood 1925 [incl. *Celetothrips breviceps Morgan 1929, P. peruviensis Hood 1938] MM96

Sedulothrips vigilans (Hood 1913) [=Polyommatothrips vigilans; incl. S. brevispinosus Moulton 1933, S. hubbelli Watson 1924, *S. insolens Bagnall 1915, Macrophthalmothrips papantlensis Johansen 1974, S. quichua Hood 1938] MM96

Treherniella amplipennis (Morgan 1913) [=Trichothrips amplipennis; incl. Haplothrips orlando Watson & Osborn 1919, *Treherniella orlando] MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1961. Allometry and speciation in Ecacanthothrips Bagnall. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 275–280.

[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under'—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[BMW13] Buckman, R. S., L. A. Mound & M. F. Whiting. 2013. Phylogeny of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) based on five molecular loci. Systematic Entomology 38: 123–133.

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. A discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 216–217).

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. Notice of a curious professor and of native wasps and wood lice. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 229–232).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. VIII. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 273–277).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[M70] Mound, L. A. 1970. Convoluted maxillary stylets and the systematics of some phlaeothripine Thysanoptera from Casuarina trees in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 18: 439–463.

[M0a] Mound, L. A. 2004a. Australian long-tailed gall thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripinae, Leeuweniini), with comments on related Old World taxa. Australian Journal of Entomology 43: 28–37.

[M04b] Mound, L. A. 2004b. Australian Thysanoptera—biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248–257.

[M08] Mound, L. A. 2008. Identification and host associations of some Thysanoptera Phlaeothripinae described from Australia pre-1930. Zootaxa 1714: 41–60.

[M13] Mound, L. A. 2013. Thysanoptera (Insecta) of Barrow Island, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 287–290.

[MDT13] Mound, L. A., L.-H. Dang & D. J. Tree. 2013. Genera of fungivorous Phlaeothripinae (Thysanoptera) from dead branches and leaf-litter in Australia. Zootaxa 3681 (3): 201–224.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[MP83] Mound, L. A., & J. M. Palmer. 1983. The generic and tribal classification of spore-feeding Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (1): 1–174.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623–8628.

[P60] Priesner, H. 1960. Das System der Tubulifera (Thysanoptera). Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 13: 283–296.

[R-SN07] Retana-Salazar, A. P., & K. Nishida. 2007. First gall-inducing thrips on Elaphoglossum ferns: a new genus and species of thrips, Jersonithrips galligenus from Costa Rica (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 143–148.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[TM13] Tree, D. J., & L. A. Mound. 2013. Leichhardt's vanishing thrips: a remarkable new genus and species of Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum—Nature 58: 375–379.

Last updated: 26 April 2022.

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