Drepanidae

Yellow hooktip Tridrepana fulvata, photographed by Kenichiro Nakao.


Belongs within: Macrolepidoptera.

The Drepanidae include the hook-tip moths, so named due to the hooked ends of their forewings.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to medium sized; head usually smooth scaled; ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata absent; antennae filiform, lamellate or bipectinate; proboscis present and unscaled, or absent; maxillary palps minute, one-segmented or absent; labial palps short to long, porrect or upcurved; epiphysis present or absent; spurs 0-2-4, 0-2-2, 0-0-4 or 0-0-0; tarsal claws usually toothed, hind tibiae often with long scales; forewing usually broadly triangular, apex often falcate, with or without wing-locking microtrichea, often with one narrow areole, CuP absent, 1A+2A sometimes with short fork; frenulum often clubbed or absent; Sc+R1 separated from Rs at base, approximated to, or shortly fused with, Rs before or beyond end of cell, CuP absent, one or two anal veins; abdomen with paired, two-chambered tympanal organs in segment 2 with tympanum situated within a sternal component between chambers. Eggs of flat type. Larvae with ventral prolegs on segments 3 to 6 with bi- or, rarely, uniordinal crochets in a mesoseries and, usually, a small uniordinal lateroseries; anal prolegs reduced or absent, secondary setae present or absent; exposed or in rolled leaf, with end of abdomen sometimes produced and raised when resting. Pupa without dorsal spines, cremaster rudimentary, in cocoon among fallen leaves; not protruded at ecdysis.

<==Drepanidae [Drepanoidea]
    |--Oretinae S02
    `--Drepaninae S02
         |--Teldenia Moore 1882 S02
         |    `--T. vestigiata Butler 1880 S02
         |--Callidrepana Felder & Felder 1867 S02
         |    `--C. argenteola Moore in Horsfield & Moore 1859 S02
         |--Leucodrepana Hampson 1892 S02
         |    `--L. idaeoides Hampson 1892 S02
         |--Spica Swinhoe 1889 S02
         |    `--S. luteola Swinhoe 1889 S02
         |--Macrauzata Butler 1889 S02
         |    |--M. fenestraria Moore 1867 S02
         |    `--M. maxima S02
         |--Drepana Schrank 1802 S02
         |    |--D. innotata Hampson 1892 S02
         |    `--D. pallida Moore 1879 S02
         |--Albara Walker 1866 S02
         |    |--A. lilacina S02
         |    `--A. violacea Butler 1889 S02
         `--Tridrepana Swinhoe 1895 S02
              |--T. albonotata Moore 1879 S02
              |--T. fulvata S02
              `--T. sadana Moore 1865 S02

Drepanidae incertae sedis:
  Macrocilix S02
  Auzata S02
  Deroca S02
  Bapta S02
  Cilix glaucata (Scopoli 1763) S02, JP05
  Hypsidia AY04
  Dipriodonta sericea W70
  Ditrigona W70
  Tethea ocularis (Linnaeus 1767) JP05
  Theteella fluctuosa (Hübner 1803) JP05
  Falcaria lacertinaria (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
  Sabra harpagula (Esper 1785) JP05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317-326.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[S02] Smetacek, P. 2002. Notes on new records of hooktip moths, Lepidoptera: Drepanidae, from the Kumaon and Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 446-454.

[W70] Wilkinson, C. 1970. Adding a point to a principal coordinates analysis. Systematic Zoology 19 (3): 258-263.

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