Geometridae

Cherry looper moth Chloroclystis approximata, copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Geometroidea.
Contains: Eupithecia, Oenochrominae, Acidalianae, Geometrinae, Ennominae, Sterrhinae, Xanthorhoe.

The Geometridae are a highly diverse group of moths. Their larvae are commonly known as loopers due to their characteristic looping mode of movement resulting from a reduction in the number of prolegs. Adults are commonly cryptically coloured with mottled grey or brown colours. Most are nocturnal though members of the subfamily Archiearinae and many Larentiinae are day-flying. Archiearinae have cryptic fore wings but brightly coloured hind wings. Nocturnal geometrids spend the day with wings pressed to the bark of trees, relying on the camouflage of their colour schemes for protection (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to large; head usually smooth scaled; ocelli usually absent; chaetosemata present; antennae simple or pectinate; proboscis present, unscaled; maxillary palps very small, upturned or porrect; epiphysis present; spurs usually 0-2-4; male hind tibiae sometimes modified; wings broad, sometimes reduced in females, fore wing often triangular, discal cell rarely to beyond midlength, often with one or two areoles; fore wing with Sc close to or partly fused with R1, R4 and R5 always stalked, M2 not arising nearer to M3 than M1, CuP absent, 1A+2A sometimes with small basal fork; hind wing with two or more frenular bristles in female, humeral angle usually expanded, humeral vein often present from angle of Sc, Sc approximated to, or fused with Rs near base, or joined to Rs by R1, and then divergent, M2 not arising nearer to M3 than M1 or absent, anal area absent, one or two anal veins; abdomen often slender; paired tympanal organs present in invaginations of anterior part of S2, inner side of each tympanal membrane with a thickened border and sclerotised arm (ansa), with four acoustic sense cells. Larva usually long and slender, ventral prolegs sometimes present on segments 3-6, 4-6, 5 and 6 or, more usually, only 6, prolegs on 6 often posterior, anal prolegs massive; crochets biordinal in curved mesoseries, rarely uniordinal; prothorax with two, rarely three, L setae; often twig- or leaf-like, rarely in loose shelter, usually feeding fully exposed. Pupa with cremaster well developed, often with hooked setae; without dorsal spines; usually in flimsy cocoon in debris or in soil; not protruded at ecdysis.

<==Geometridae [Boarmiidae, Macaridae, Monoctenidae] RD77
    |--+--Geometrinae KP19
    |  `--Ennominae KP19
    `--+--Sterrhinae KP19
       `--Larentiinae [Larentidae] KP19
            |--Sauris remodesaria NC91, WM66
            |--Austrocidaria AY04
            |--Xanthorhoe NC91
            |--Euphyia NC91
            |--Microdes squamulata NC91, G84
            |--Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Haworth 1809) NC91, JP05
            |--Scotosia stellata H01
            |--Pterocypha defensata H01
            |--Operophtera brumata KP19
            |--Poecilasthena C70
            |    |--P. pulchraria C70
            |    `--P. subpurpureata P27b
            |--Larentia F92
            |    |--L. badiata F92
            |    |--L. clavaria F92
            |    |--L. impluviata F92
            |    `--L. juniperata F92
            `--Chloroclystis NC91
                 |--C. approximata NC91
                 |--C. bilineolata P27a
                 |--C. citrata (Linnaeus 1761) JP05
                 |--C. heighwayi Philpott 1927 P27a
                 |--C. laticostata C70
                 |--C. muscosata L27
                 |--C. sandycias L27
                 |--C. siterata (Hufnagel 1767) JP05
                 `--C. testulata P27b

Geometridae incertae sedis:
  Arctesthes catapyrrha PPE03
  Paranotoreas brephosata PPE03
  Helastia semisignata M83
  Hypochrosis A71
  Semiothisa liturata A71, F92
  Peratophyga A71
  Pseudocoremia suavis BB04
  Eupithecia GE05
  Synchlora GE05
  Alsophila GE05
    |--A. aescularia RD77
    `--A. pometaria GE05
  Probole FM80
    |--P. alienaria FM80
    `--P. nepiasaria [=Hyperetis nepiasaria] FM80
  Declana M83
    |--D. atronivea O81
    |--D. floccosa M83
    `--D. leptomeris P27b
  Selina bilunaria A30
  Archephanes AY04
  Milionia queenslandica G08
  Rhynchopsota AY04
  Apeira syringaria (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
  Odontopera bidentata (Clerck 1759) JP05
  Peribatodes V09
    |--P. rhomboidaria [=Boarmia rhomboidaria] V09
    `--P. secundaria (Esper 1794) JP05
  Campaea margaritata (Linnaeus 1767) V09, JP05
  Elophos JP05
    |--E. dilucidaria (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
    `--E. vittaria (Thunberg 1788) JP05
  Siona lineata (Scopoli 1763) JP05
  Melanthia procellata (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
  Catarhoe cuculata (Hufnagel 1767) JP05
  Thera obeliscata (Hübner 1787) JP05
  Horisme JP05
    |--H. corticata (Treitschke 1835) JP05
    |--H. peplodes P27b
    `--H. tersata (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
  Epirrita christyi (Allen 1906) JP05
  Eupithecila linariata (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
  Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus 1775) JP05
  Plagodis dolabraria (Linnaeus 1767) JP05
  Petrophora chlorosata (Scopoli 1763) JP05
  Chesias JP05
    |--C. legatella (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
    |--C. oranaria Lucas 1849 E12
    `--C. spartiata F92
  Rhinoprora chloerata (Mabille 1870) JP05
  Acasis viretata (Hübner 1817) JP05
  Scotorythra O94
  Oar pratana F05
    |--O. p. pratana F05
    `--O. p. baezi Hausmann 2004 F05
  Pseudoterpna pruinata YS10
  Orsonoba rajaca WM66
  Problepsis apollinaria ZS10
  Protuliocnemis ZS10
  Alleopage cinerea ZS10
  Dysphania numana ZS10
  Corymica pryeri ZS10
  Stathmorrhopa aphotista G84
  Zermisinga indocilisaria G84
  Jodis lactearia V09
  Cyclophora punctaria V09
  Opisthograpta luteolata [=Rumia luteolata] V09
  Angerona prunaria P01
  Ematurga atomaria P01
  Scoria lineata P01
  Lythria P01
    |--L. chrysopeda P27b
    `--L. purpuraria P01
  Ortholitha plumbaria P01
  Lithostege griseata [incl. L. griseata var. duplicaria, L. griseata ab. infuscata] P01
  Eucosmia undulata P01
  Cidaria P01
    |--C. albicillata P01
    |--C. comitata P01
    |--C. hastata P01
    `--C. luctuata P01
  Melanodes NC91
  Thalassodes M86
    |--T. byrsopis Meyrick 1886 M86
    `--T. chloropis M86
  Anacamptodes vellvolata C96
  Eucaterva variaria G05
  Geometridites larentiiformis RJ93
  ‘Monotaxis’ Hulst 1898 non Bennett 1830 S01
  Ellopia S96
    |--E. athasaria S96
    `--E. somniaria F92
  Prochoerodes truxaliata WS96
  Elpiste lorquinaria WS96
  Archiearinae NC91
    |--Acalyphes philorites NC91
    |--Dirce NC91
    `--Archiearis ZK11
         |--A. notha (Hübner 1808) I92
         `--A. parthenias ZK11
  Hemitheinae C70
    |--Hemithea aestivaria (Hübner 1789) JP05
    |--Eucyclodes pieroides C70
    `--Chlorocoma C70
         |--C. assimilis C70
         `--C. dichoraria P27b
  Oenochrominae NC91
  Acidalianae H01
  Abraxas [Abraxinae] S01
    |--A. adustata F92
    |--A. grossulariata F92
    |--A. latifasciata Swinhoe 1901 S01
    |--A. marginata P01
    |--A. munda S01
    |--A. pantaria F92
    |--A. sibilla [=Craspedosis sibilla] S01
    `--A. silvata P01
  Erannis defeliaria RD77, F92 [=Hibernia defeliaria F92]
  Apocheima RD77
  Colotois pennaria RD77
  Monoctenia pallida P27b
  Palaecrita RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A30] Allen, E. J. 1930. The origin of adaptations. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 119–138.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[BB04] Berndt, L., E. G. Brockerhoff, H. Jactel, T. Weis & J. Beaton. 2004. Biology and rearing of Pseudocoremia suavis, an endemic looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) with a history of outbreaks on exotic conifers. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 73–82.

[C96] Chow, Y. S. 1996. Biology and life stages of Charletonia taiwanensis Tsai and Chow (Erythraeidae) in Taiwan. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 359–361. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[FM80] Futuyma, D. J., & G. C. Mayer. 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Systematic Zoology 29 (3): 254–271.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G08] Golding, M. R. 2008. A Pictorial Field Guide to the Beetles of Australia. Part 3: Chalcophorinae. Ocean Publishing.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G05] Grissell, E. E. 2005. A review of North American species of Microdontomerus Crawford (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 22–65.

[H01] Hampson, G. F. 1901. The Lepidoptera-Phalaenae of the Bahamas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 246–261.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. On some Lepidoptera from the Fly River. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 241–258.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[PPE03] Patrick, B., H. Patrick & E. Edwards. 2003. Tiger moths and pheromones. Weta 25: 14–17.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P27a] Philpott, A. 1927a. New Zealand Lepidoptera: Notes and descriptions. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 703–709.

[P27b] Philpott, A. 1927b. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) in the eastern United States: seasonal flight activity, distribution, hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 109–118.

[S01] Swinhoe, C. 1901. New genera and species of eastern and Australian moths. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 463–473.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[WS96] Whitfield, J. B., & B. Scaccia. 1996. A new species of Distatrix (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from California, with biological notes. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 308–313.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A. & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 21 February 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS