Geometridae

Large thorn Ennomos autumnaria, photographed by Zdeněk Hromádko.


Belongs within: Geometroidea.
Contains: Eupithecia, Idaea, Xanthorhoe, Drepanogynis.

The Geometridae are a highly diverse group of moths. Their larvae are commonly known as loopers, due to their characteristic looping mode of movement resulting from a reduction in the number of prolegs. Adults are commonly cryptically coloured with mottled grey or brown colours. Most are nocturnal, though members of the subfamily Archiearinae and many Larentiinae are day-flying. Nocturnal geometrids spend the day with wings pressed to the bark of trees, relying on the camouflage of their colour schemes for protection (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to large; head usually smooth scaled; ocelli usually absent; chaetosemata present; antennae simple or pectinate; proboscis present, unscaled; maxillary palps very small, upturned or porrect; epiphysis present; spurs usually 0-2-4; male hind tibiae sometimes modified; wings broad, sometimes reduced in females, fore wing often triangular, discal cell rarely to beyond midlength, often with one or two areoles; fore wing with Sc close to or partly fused with R1, R4 and R5 always stalked, M2 not arising nearer to M3 than M1, CuP absent, 1A+2A sometimes with small basal fork; hind wing with two or more frenular bristles in female, humeral angle usually expanded, humeral vein often present from angle of Sc, Sc approximated to, or fused with Rs near base, or joined to Rs by R1, and then divergent, M2 not arising nearer to M3 than M1 or absent, anal area absent, one or two anal veins; abdomen often slender; paired tympanal organs present in invaginations of anterior part of S2, inner side of each tympanal membrane with a thickened border and sclerotised arm (ansa), with four acoustic sense cells. Larva usually long and slender, ventral prolegs sometimes present on segments 3-6, 4-6, 5 and 6 or, more usually, only 6, prolegs on 6 often posterior, anal prolegs massive; crochets biordinal in curved mesoseries, rarely uniordinal; prothorax with two, rarely three, L setae; often twig- or leaf-like, rarely in loose shelter, usually feeding fully exposed. Pupa with cremaster well developed, often with hooked setae; without dorsal spines; usually in flimsy cocoon in debris or in soil; not protruded at ecdysis.

<==Geometridae [Macaridae]
    |--Archiearinae NC91
    |    |--Archiearis notha (Hübner 1808) I92
    |    |--Acalyphes philorites NC91
    |    `--Dirce NC91
    |--Hemitheinae C70
    |    |--Hemithea aestivaria (Hübner 1789) JP05
    |    |--Eucyclodes pieroides C70
    |    `--Chlorocoma C70
    |         |--C. assimilis C70
    |         `--C. dichoraria P27b
    |--Geometrinae AY04
    |    |--Comostola cedilla MC13, ZS10
    |    |--Aeolochroma metarhodata NC91
    |    |--Pingasa chlora NC91
    |    |--Anisozyga pieroides NC91
    |    |--Agathia NC91
    |    |--Euloxia meandiaria NC91, P27b
    |    `--Hypobapta NC91
    |         |--H. eugramma NC91
    |         `--H. percomptaria G84
    |--Sterrhinae MC13
    |    |--Oncopus Herrich-Schaeffer 1855 OK07
    |    |    `--*O. citrosus (Geyer 1832) [=Paidia citrosa] OK07
    |    |--Anisodes NC91
    |    |    |--A. pallida P27b
    |    |    `--A. turneri NC91
    |    `--Scopula MC13
    |         |--S. dilutalis Guénée 1849 E12
    |         |--S. floslactata (Haworth 1809) JP05
    |         |--S. ornata (Scopoli 1763) JP05
    |         `--S. rubraria M83
    |--Larentiinae [Larentidae] NC91
    |    |--Sauris remodesaria WM66
    |    |--Austrocidaria AY04
    |    |--Xanthorhoe NC91
    |    |--Euphyia NC91
    |    |--Microdes squamulata NC91, G84
    |    |--Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Haworth 1809) NC91, JP05
    |    |--Poecilasthena C70
    |    |    |--P. pulchraria C70
    |    |    `--P. subpurpureata P27b
    |    `--Chloroclysta NC91
    |         |--C. approximata NC91
    |         |--C. bilineolata P27a
    |         |--C. citrata (Linnaeus 1761) JP05
    |         |--C. heighwayi Philpott 1927 P27a
    |         |--C. laticostata C70
    |         |--C. muscosata L27
    |         |--C. sandycias L27
    |         |--C. siterata (Hufnagel 1767) JP05
    |         `--C. testulata P27b
    |--Oenochrominae [Oenochromidae] MC13
    |    |--Taxeotis intextata MC13
    |    |--Nearcha NC91
    |    |--Gastrophora henricaria NC91
    |    |--Hypographa NC91
    |    |--Epidesmia chilonaria NC91
    |    |--Circopetes C70
    |    |--Onychopsis lutosaria C70
    |    |--Lissomma C70
    |    |--Dichromodes MC13
    |    |    |--D. albitacta MC13
    |    |    |--D. consignata P27b
    |    |    `--D. poecilatis MC13
    |    |--Celerena M86
    |    |    |--C. lerne [=Callimorpha lerne] M86
    |    |    |--C. mutata M86
    |    |    `--C. prodroma Meyrick 1886 M86
    |    `--Oenochroma NC91
    |         |--O. phyllomorpha C70
    |         |--O. quadrigamma ZS10
    |         |--O. subustaria C70
    |         `--O. vinaria NC91
    `--Ennominae [Boarmiadae, Boarmiinae, Ennomidae] K02
         |  i. s.: Drepanodes scitaria [incl. Anisodes pyriniata] WM66
         |         Cleora inflexaria MC13, P27b
         |         Boarmia C70
         |           |--B. boisduvalaria Lucas 1849 E12
         |           `--B. luxaria C70
         |         Mnesampela NC91
         |           |--M. fucata C70
         |           |--M. lenaea C70
         |           `--M. privata NC91
         |         Chlenias NC91
         |         Ciampa arietaria NC91
         |         Thalaina NC91
         |           |--T. clara P27b
         |           `--T. selenaea NC91
         |         Pholodes sinistraria NC91
         |         Ateloptila Meyrick 1886 M86
         |           `--*A. psamathopa Meyrick 1886 M86
         `--Ennomini K02
              |--Cophophlebia Warren 1897 K02
              |--Drepanogynis K02
              `--Ennomos K02
                   |--*E. autumnaria K02
                   |--E. quercinaria (Hufnagel 1767) JP05
                   `--E. subsignarius L81

Geometridae incertae sedis:
  Arctesthes catapyrrha PPE03
  Paranotoreas brephosata PPE03
  Helastia semisignata M83
  Hypochrosis A71
  Somatina A71
  Semiothisa A71
  Peratophyga A71
  Pseudocoremia suavis BB04
  Eupithecia GE05
  Synchlora GE05
  Alsophila pometaria GE05
  Probole FM80
    |--P. alienaria FM80
    `--P. nepiasaria [=Hyperetis nepiasaria] FM80
  Declana M83
    |--D. atronivea O81
    |--D. floccosa M83
    `--D. leptomeris P27b
  Selina bilunaria A30
  Archephanes AY04
  Milionia queenslandica G08
  Rhynchopsota AY04
  Apeira syringaria (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
  Odontopera bidentata (Clerck 1759) JP05
  Peribatodes JP05
    |--P. rhomboidaria [=Boarmia rhomboidaria] V09
    `--P. secundaria (Esper 1794) JP05
  Campaea margaritata (Linnaeus 1767) JP05
  Elophos JP05
    |--E. dilucidaria (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
    `--E. vittaria (Thunberg 1788) JP05
  Siona lineata (Scopoli 1763) JP05
  Melanthia procellata (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
  Catarhoe cuculata (Hufnagel 1767) JP05
  Thera obeliscata (Hübner 1787) JP05
  Horisme JP05
    |--H. corticata (Treitschke 1835) JP05
    |--H. peplodes P27b
    `--H. tersata (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
  Epirrita christyi (Allen 1906) JP05
  Eupithecila linariata (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
  Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus 1775) JP05
  Plagodis dolabraria (Linnaeus 1767) JP05
  Petrophora chlorosata (Scopoli 1763) JP05
  Chesias JP05
    |--C. legatella (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
    `--C. oranaria Lucas 1849 E12
  Rhinoprora chloerata (Mabille 1870) JP05
  Acasis viretata (Hübner 1817) JP05
  Scotorythra O94
  Idaea F05
  Oar pratana F05
    |--O. p. pratana F05
    `--O. p. baezi Hausmann 2004 F05
  Pseudoterpna pruinata YS10
  Orsonoba rajaca WM66
  Macaria JP05
    |--M. alternata (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
    |--M. divisaria WM66
    `--M. liturata V09
  Problepsis apollinaria ZS10
  Protuliocnemis ZS10
  Alleopage cinerea ZS10
  Dysphania numana ZS10
  Corymica pryeri ZS10
  Stathmorrhopa aphotista G84
  Zermizinga indocilisaria G84
  Jodis lactearia V09
  Cyclophora punctaria V09
  Timandra V09
    |--T. aventiaria WM66
    `--T. comae V09
  Opisthograpta luteolata [=Rumia luteolata] V09
  Abraxas P01
    |--A. marginata P01
    `--A. silvata P01
  Angerona prunaria P01
  Ematurga atomaria P01
  Scoria lineata P01
  Lythria P01
    |--L. chrysopeda P27b
    `--L. purpuraria P01
  Ortholitha plumbaria P01
  Lithostege griseata [incl. L. griseata var. duplicaria, L. griseata ab. infuscata] P01
  Eucosmia undulata P01
  Cidaria P01
    |--C. albicillata P01
    |--C. comitata P01
    |--C. hastata P01
    `--C. luctuata P01
  Melanodes NC91
  Nemoria arizonaria CGT91
  Thalassodes M86
    |--T. byrsopis Meyrick 1886 M86
    `--T. chloropis M86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A30] Allen, E. J. 1930. The origin of adaptations. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 119–138.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[BB04] Berndt, L., E. G. Brockerhoff, H. Jactel, T. Weis & J. Beaton. 2004. Biology and rearing of Pseudocoremia suavis, an endemic looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) with a history of outbreaks on exotic conifers. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 73–82.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[CGT91] Cranston, P. S., P. J. Gullan & R. W. Taylor. 1991. Principles and practice of systematics. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 109–124. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[FM80] Futuyma, D. J., & G. C. Mayer. 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Systematic Zoology 29 (3): 254–271.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G08] Golding, M. R. 2008. A Pictorial Field Guide to the Beetles of Australia. Part 3: Chalcophorinae. Ocean Publishing.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[K02] Krüger, M. 2002. Revision of the Afrotropical Ennominae of the Drepanogynis group IV: the genus Drepanogynis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Transvaal Museum Monograph 13: 1–220.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. On some Lepidoptera from the Fly River. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 241–258.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[OK07] Özdikmen, H., & A. B. Kury. 2007. Replacement names for Oncopus and Oncopodidae (Arachnida, Opiliones). Journal of Arachnology 35 (2): 407–408.

[PPE03] Patrick, B., H. Patrick & E. Edwards. 2003. Tiger moths and pheromones. Weta 25: 14–17.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

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[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A. & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 18 August 2017.

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