Phengaris atroguttata, photographed by Chia Chieh Fan.

Belongs within: Lycaenidae.
Contains: Polyommatus, Maculinea.

The Polyommatini are a cosmopolitan group of butterflies.

Characters (from Eliot 1973): Fore wing with veins 11 and 12 variable, may be free, touch or anastomose; in a few species vein 11 may arise from vein 10; an additional vein linking veins 11 and 12 rarely occurs. Hind wing tailed or tailless. Secondary sexual characters comprise various types of specialized scales, of which battledore androconia, arranged in alternate rows with ordinary scales, are much the most frequent; occasionally compact patches or streaks of specialized hair and short plume scales occur. Eyes variable. Antennae with nudum confined to club. Palpi variable. Male genitalia with uncus undivided or (more commonly) divided into separated lobes; brachia usually present, but never bifurcate; juxta usually furca-like, but occasionally reduced to a small plate or otherwise modified; saccus usually not or only very slightly developed.

<==Polyommatini [Polymmatinae]
    |--Euphilotes AV04
    |    |--E. battoides AV04
    |    `--E. enoptes AV04
    `--+--+--Iolana iolas AV04
       |  `--+--Otnjukovia tatjana AV04
       |     `--Turanana cytis AV04
       |--Phengaris Doherty 1891 AV04
       |    |--P. daitozana AV04
       |    `--+--Maculinea AV04
       |       `--+--P. albida AV04
       |          `--P. atroguttata AV04
       `--+--+--Scolitantides [Scolitantiditi] AV04
          |  |    `--S. orion AV04
          |  `--Pseudophilotes AV04
          |       |--P. bavius AV04
          |       `--+--P. baton AV04
          |          `--P. vicrama AV04
          `--+--Caerulea AV04
             |    |--C. coelestis AV04
             |    `--C. coeligena AV04
             `--Glaucopsyche [Glaucopsychiti] AV04
                  |  i. s.: G. xerces GE05
                  |--G. alexis AV04
                  `--+--G. lygdamus AV04
                     `--Sinia divina AV04

Polyommatini incertae sedis:
  Catopyrops ancyra PP02
  Catochrysops taitensis PP02
  Lampides boeticus PP02
  Famegana alsulus PP02
  Euchrysops cnejus PP02
  Zizula hylax PP02
  Jamides bochus PP02
    |--J. b. bochus PP02
    `--J. b. candrena PP02
  Strymon bazochii PP02
    |--S. b. bazochii PP02
    `--S. b. gundlachianus PP02
  Zizina PP02
    |--Z. labradus PP02 [=Z. otis labradus M83; incl. Z. otis mangoensis PP02]
    `--Z. oxleyi PPE03
  Nacaduba PP02
    |--N. biocellata PP02
    |    |--N. b. biocellata PP02
    |    `--N. b. armillata PP02
    |--N. dyopa PP02
    `--N. samoensis PP02
  Polyommatus BH07
  Lepidochrysops AV04
  Phaedrotes AV04
  Apelles AV04
  Philotes AV04
  Palaeophilotes AV04
  Praephilotes AV04
  Shijimiaeoides AV04
    |--S. battoides USDI77
    |    |--S. b. battoides USDI77
    |    `--S. b. allyni USDI77
    |--S. divina I92
    |    |--S. d. divina I92
    |    `--S. d. barine (Leech 1893) I92
    `--S. enoptes USDI77
         |--S. e. enoptes USDI77
         `--S. e. smithi USDI77
  Philotiella AV04
  Micropsyche AV04
  Rubrapterus AV04
  Bajluana AV04
  Lachides AV04
  Anthene AV04
  Niphanda fusca (Bremer & Grey 1852) AV04, I92
  Aricia BH07
    |--A. agestis (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) BH07
    |--A. artaxerxes (Fabricius 1781) BH07
    `--A. eumedon (Esper 1782) BH07
  Cyaniris semiargus (Poda 1761) BH07
  Plebejus BH07
    |--P. argus (Linnaeus 1758) BH07
    |--P. argyrognomon (Bergsträsser 1779) BH07
    |--P. idas (Linnaeus 1758) BH07
    `--P. sephirus (Frivaldszky 1835) BH07

Nomen nudum: Nacaduba nora nana Nakamura in Kishida 1933 [=Nacaduva (l. c.) nora nana, Prosotas nana] TYM08

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AV04] Als, T. D., R. Vila, N. P. Kandul, D. R. Nash, S.-H. Yen, Y.-F. Hsu, A. A. Mignault, J. J. Boomsma & N. E. Pierce. 2004. The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies. Nature 432: 386-390.

[BH07] Bálint, Z., Z. E. Horváth, K. Kertész, Z. Vértesy & L. P. Biró. 2007. Observations on scale structures and spectroscopic properties of Polyommatus lycaenid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 115-127.

Eliot, J. N. 1973. The higher classification of the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera): a tentative arrangement. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology) 28 (6): 371-505.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5-12.

[PPE03] Patrick, B., H. Patrick & E. Edwards. 2003. Tiger moths and pheromones. Weta 25: 14-17.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology – a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants - republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

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