Brown king crow Euploea klugii, photographed by J. M. Garg.

Belongs within: Danaini.

Euploea, the crows, is a genus of generally dark-coloured butterflies. Euploea species are primarily found in the Oriental and Australian regions, with the highest diversity around Indonesia.

Characters (from Bingham 1905): Fore wing variable in shape, more or less triangular, comparatively broad and short, or elongate and narrow, or almost subquadrate. Costa widely arched; termen oblique, sometimes slightly convex or concave; dorsum in male always convex, in female straight or sinuous. Hind wing ovate, broad, sometimes subtriangular. Discoidal cell of both fore and hind wing broad and long, over half length of wing; in the hind wing sometimes over two-thirds the length of wing; discocellulars of fore wing sharply angulated and with a spur inwards, or slightly concave; rest of the neuration not variable; veins 11 and 12 of fore wing never anastomosed; dorsum of fore wing on the underside, and costa of hind wing on the upperside, nacreous. Antennae over half length of fore wing; club very gradual; palpi short, somewhat thick, third joint conical; fore legs with tibiae and femora subequal; tarsi much shorter in male, cylindrical, biarticulate and tapering; in female clavate, quadriarticulate; intermediate and posterior legs normal, their claws with paronychia and pulvilli. Secondary sex-marks in the male present or absent; when present consisting of peculiarly modified scales which take the appearance of a brand when on the fore wing, and of a patch different in colour from the surrounding scales on the hind wing.

<==Euploea Fabricius 1807 [incl. Crastia Hübner 1816, Salpinx Hübner 1816, Terpsichrois Hübner 1816] B66a
    |--E. abjecta Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |--E. a. abjecta TYM08
    |    `--E. a. bona Nakamura 1929 TYM08
    |--E. adyte Boisduval 1859 B66b
    |--E. aegyptus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. aglidice Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. aethiops Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. alcathoe (Godart 1819) [=Danais alcathoe] B66a
    |--E. alecto Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. amymone Godart 1819 B66a
    |--E. anthracina Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. boisduvalii Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. bremeri Felder 1860 B66a
    |--E. callithoe Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. camaralzeman Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. chloe Guérin 1843 B66a
    |--E. climena (Cramer 1782) [=Papilio climena, Crastia climena; incl. Danais algea Godart 1819] B66a
    |--E. confusa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. core (Cramer 1780) B66a (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. crameri Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. crassa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. cratis Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. dehaani Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. deione Westwood 1847 B66a
    |--E. desjardinsii (Guérin 1829-1844) [=Danaida desjardinsii] B66a
    |--E. diana Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. diocletia (Hübner 1806) [=Amaura diocletia; incl. E. megilla Erichson 1834] B66a
    |--E. doleschalii Felder 1859 B66a
    |--E. dryasis (Fabricius 1793) [=Papilio dryasis, Danais dryasis] B66a
    |--E. dufresnii (Godart 1819) B66a [=Danais dufresnii B66a; incl. E. laetifica Butler 1866 B66b, B66a]
    |--E. duponchelii Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. ebenina Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. eleusine (Cramer 1780) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--E. eleutho (Quoy & Gaim. in Freycinet 1815) B66a [=Danais eleutho B66a; incl. E. helcita Boisduval 1859 B66b]
    |--E. elisa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. esperi Felder 1863 B66b
    |--E. eunice (Godart 1819) B66a (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. eupator Hewitson 1857-1861 B66a
    |--E. euphone Fabricius 1793 [=Danais euphone] B66a
    |--E. eurianassa Hewitson 1857-1861 B66a
    |--E. eurypon Hewitson 1857-1861 B66a
    |--E. felderi Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. frauenfeldi Felder 1863 B66b
    |--E. gamelia (Hübner 1806-1827) [=Salpinx gamelia; incl. E. faber Zinken-Sommer 1831] B66a
    |--E. gloriosa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. godartii Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. goudotii Boisduval 1833 B66a
    |--E. gyllenhalii Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. haworthii Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. herbstii Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. hewitsonii Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. hisme Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. huebneri Moore 1857 B66a
    |--E. hyacinthus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. hyems Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. inquinata Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. iphianassa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. janus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. kadu Eschscholtz 1821 B66b
    |--E. kinbergi Wallengren 1860 B66a
    |--E. klugii Moore 1857 B66a
    |--E. lapeyrousei Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. ledereri Felder 1860 B66a
    |--E. leucostictos PP02
    |    |--E. l. leucostictos PP02
    |    |--E. l. macleayi PP02
    |    `--E. l. sonana Nakamura 1932 TYM08
    |--E. lewinii PP02
    |    |--E. l. lewinii PP02
    |    `--E. l. eschscholtzii PP02
    |--E. margarita Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. mazares Moore 1857 B66a
    |--E. megaera Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. melancholica Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. melina (Godart 1819) [=Danais melina] B66a
    |--E. melpomene Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. menetriesii Felder 1860 B66a
    |--E. mitra Moore 1857 B66a
    |--E. midamus (Linné 1766) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--E. modesta Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |--E. m. modesta B88
    |    `--E. m. lugens B88
    |--E. moesta Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. moorei Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. morosa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. muisgechii Felder 1859 B66a
    |--E. novarae Felder 1863 B66b
    |--E. nox Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. ochsenheimeri Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. orope Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. palla Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. pelor Westw. 1847 B66a
    |--E. phoebus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. picina Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. pollita Erichson 1833 B66a
    |--E. priapus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. proserpina Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. prothoe (Godart 1816) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--E. pumila Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. rhadamanthus (Fabricius 1793) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--E. rogeri (Hübner 1806) [=Crastia rogeri] B66a
    |--E. scherzeri Felder 1863 B66b
    |--E. semicirculus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. sepulchralis Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. superba (Herbst 1783-1795) [=Papilio superba; incl. Danais alopia Godart 1819] B66a
    |--E. swainsonii (Godart 1823) [=Danais swainsonii] B66a
    |--E. swinhoei Wallace & Moore 1866 WM66
    |--E. sylvester (Fabricius 1793) [=Papilio sylvester, Danais sylvestris, Euploea sylvester] B66a
    |--E. tisiphone Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. treitschkei Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. tristis Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. tulliolus (Fabricius 1793) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |    |--E. t. tulliolus PP02
    |    `--E. t. forsteri PP02
    |--E. usipetes Hewitson 1857-1861 B66a
    |--E. vermiculata Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. vestigiata Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. viola Butler 1866 B66a
    `--E. wallacei Felder 1860 B66a

Euploea core (Cramer 1780) B66a [=Papilio core B66a, Crastia core B66a, Danais cora B66a, D. coreta B66a, Papilio corus B66a; incl. Euploea corinna M’Leay 1827 B66b]

Euploea eleusine (Cramer 1780) [=Papilio eleusine, Danais eleusine, Salpinx eleusina, Terpsichrois eleusina; incl. Danais darchia M’Leay 1827, Euploea darchia] B66a

Euploea eunice (Godart 1819) B66a [=Danais eunice B66a, Danaida eunice B66a; incl. Limnas mutabilis nemertes Hübner 1806-1827 B66a, Euploea nemertes PP02, Salpinx nemertes B66a]

Euploea midamus (Linné 1766) [=Papilio midamus, Danais midamus, Limnas mutabilis midamis; incl. Papilio basilissa Cramer 1780, P. claudius Fabricius 1793, Danais claudia, P. mulciber Cramer 1776] B66a

Euploea prothoe (Godart 1816) [=Danais prothoe; incl. Terpsichrois alea Hübner 1816, Euploea pavettae Zinken-Sommer 1831] B66a

Euploea rhadamanthus (Fabricius 1793) [=Papilio rhadamanthus; incl. Danais alcidice Godart 1819, D. diocletianus Fabricius 1793, D. rhadamia Godart 1819, Terpsichrois thoosa Hübner 1806-1827] B66a

Euploea tulliolus (Fabricius 1793) [=Papilio tulliolus, Danais tulliola; incl. E. saundersii Boisduval in Butler 1866 (n. n.)] B66a

*Type species of generic name indicated


Bingham, C. T. 1905. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies vol. 1. Taylor and Francis: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B66a] Butler, A. G. 1866a. A monograph of the diurnal Lepidoptera belonging to the genus Euploea, with descriptions of many new species; founded principally on the specimens in the collection of the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 268-302.

[B66b] Butler, A. G. 1866b. Corrections and addenda to certain papers on Lepidoptera published during the years 1865-66; with additional notes on some of the species described. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 451-458.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5-12.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

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