Female (above) and male (below) Io moths Automeris io, photographed by Patrick Coin.

Belongs within: Saturnioidea.

The Saturniinae are a group of large moths bearing characteristic eye spots on the upper surface of the wings. Members of the genus Actias, moon moths, have long tails on the hind wings. Saturniines include some of the largest of all living moths with the Atlas moth Attacus atlas of southern Asia having a wingspan up to 24 cm. The giant peacock moth Saturnia pyri of the western Palaearctic is the largest moth species found in Europe.

<==Saturniinae [Attacinae]
    |--Attacus KP19
    |    |--A. atlas (Linnaeus 1758) I92 [=Bombyx (Attacus) atlas G20]
    |    |--A. crameri DS73
    |    |    |--A. c. crameri DS73
    |    |    `--A. c. lorquinii DS73
    |    |--A. cynthia F92
    |    |--A. dohertyi DS73
    |    |--A. edwardsi DS73
    |    |--A. lunula F92
    |    |--A. pavonius [=Bombyx (Attacus) pavonia] G20
    |    |--A. ricini MG06
    |    `--A. wardi NC91
    `--+--Actias KP19
       |    |--A. artemis DS73
       |    |--A. luna KP19
       |    `--A. selene DS73
       `--Saturnia KP19
            |--S. atlantica Lucas 1849 E12
            |--S. pavonia DS73
            |    |--S. p. pavonia R13
            |    `--S. p. minor R13
            |--S. pyretorum DS73
            |    |--S. p. pyretorum DS73
            |    `--S. p. luctifera DS73
            |--S. pyri DS73
            `--S. (Perisomena) stoliczkana Felder & Felder 1874 NS07

Saturniinae incertae sedis:
  Rhodormiscodes rosea (Druce 1886) [=Dirphia rosea] S55
  Lonomia cynira S55
    |--L. c. cynira S55
    `--L. c. concordia Druce 1886 S55
  Molippa rivulosa S55
    |--M. r. rivulosa S55
    `--M. r. simillima Jones 1907 S55
  Hylesia S55
    |--H. acuta Druce 1886 S55
    |--H. alinda Druce 1886 S55
    |--H. dalina Schaus 1911 S55
    `--H. lineata P92
  Copaxa S55
    |--C. decrescens Walker 1855 [incl. C. decrescens f. purpurascens Draudt in Seitz 1929] S55
    |    |--C. d. decrescens S55
    |    `--C. d. rufinans Schaus 1906 S55
    `--C. semioculata (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Sagana semioculata] NS07
  Automeris S55
    |--A. abdominalis (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria abdominalis] NS07
    |--A. aurantiaca DS73
    |--A. banus DS73
    |--A. boops (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria boops] NS07
    |--A. cinctistriga (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria cinctistriga] NS07
    |--A. complicata DS73
    |--A. coresus DS73
    |--A. eogena (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria eogena] NS07
    |--A. grammivora DS73
    |--A. illustris DS73
    |--A. incarnata S55
    |    |--A. i. incarnata S55
    |    `--A. i. cecrops (Boisduval 1875) [=Jo cecrops] S55
    |--A. io DS73
    |--A. irene DS73
    |--A. janus (Cramer 1775) [=Phalaena (Attacus) janus] S55
    |--A. jucunda (Cramer 1779) [incl. Hyperchiria titania Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
    |--A. junonia (Walker 1866) [=Hyperchiria junonia] S55
    |--A. metea DS73
    |--A. montezuma S55
    |    |--A. m. montezuma S55
    |    `--A. m. pallidior Draudt 1929 S55
    `--A. rubrescens (Walker 1853) [=Hyperchiria rubrescens] S55
  Rothschildia S55
    |--R. erycina (Shaw 1796) [incl. Attacus affinis Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
    |--R. forbesi DS73
    |--R. jacobaeae (Walker 1855) [incl. Attacus satyrus Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
    |--R. jorulla DS73
    |--R. lebeau (Guérin-Ménéville 1868) [=Attacus lebeaui] S55
    |--R. orizaba DS73
    |--R. speculifer DS73
    `--R. splendida (Beauvois 1805) [=Bombyx splendida] S55

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[NS07] Nässig, W. A., & W. Speidel. 2007. On the authorships of the Lepidoptera Atlas of the “Reise der Novara”, with a list of the taxa of Bombycoidea [s. l.] therein described (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 63–74.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Saturniiden aus El Salvador (Ins. Lep. Heterocera). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 209–213.

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