Nikko fir Abies homolepis, copyright MPF.

Belongs within: Pinaceae.

Abies, the firs, is a genus of conifers with erect seed cones native to the Northern Hemisphere (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Young bark smooth, with resin blisters, mature bark thick, deeply furrowed; young branches appearing whorled; twig glabrous or hairy; leaf scars smooth, round, flush with surface; bud generally more or less spheric, generally <1 cm, more or less resinous. Leaves 2–9 cm, sessile, twisted at base to become two-ranked, often curved upward on upper twigs, generally more or less flat; upper surface with two longitudinal, whitish bands, midrib sometimes depressed; lower surface with or without whitish bands, midrib sometimes ridge-like. Seed cone erect, <23 cm, maturing first season; stalk generally absent; bracts, scales deciduous; bract included in scale or exserted, free from scale; axis persistent on stem. Seed with obvious resin deposits on surface; wing <2.5 cm. 2n=24 (where known).

    |--A. alba Miller 1768 SM14
    |--A. amabilis W85
    |--A. balsamea HP03
    |--A. bracteata [incl. A. venusta] H93
    |--A. cephalonica RCT96
    |--A. concolor [incl. A. concolora var. lowiana] H93
    |--A. excelsa C55
    |--A. fabri MM12
    |--A. firma MM12
    |--A. grandis C84
    |--A. holophylla MM12
    |--A. homolepis MM12
    |--A. lasiocarpa H93
    |--A. magnifica F56
    |    |--A. m. var. magnifica H93
    |    `--A. m. var. shastensis H93
    |--A. mariesii T85
    |--A. nebrodensis R-CT01
    |--A. nephrolepis S00
    |--A. numidica EH06
    |--A. pectinata [incl. Pinus picea] C55
    |--A. pindrow N02
    |--A. procera M87
    |--A. religiosa C-MM-R07
    |--A. sachalinensis T03
    `--A. veitchii MM12

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C-MM-R07] Castaño-Meneses, G., & B. E. Mejía-Recamier. 2007. Community structure of mites in Tillandsia violacea (Bromeliaceae) from a temperate forest of central Mexico. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 657–664. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[C84] Cokendolpher, J. C. 1984. Revision of the harvestman genus Leptobunus and dismantlement of the Leptobunidae (Arachnida: Opiliones: Palpatores). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 92 (4): 371–402.

[EH06] Eckert, A. J., & B. D. Hall. 2006. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and patterns of diversification for Pinus (Pinaceae): phylogenetic tests of fossil-based hypotheses. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 166–182.

[F56] Foote, R. H. 1956. Gall midges associated with cones of western forest trees (Diptera: Itonididae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (2): 48–57.

[HP03] Hauck, M., A. Paul, S. Gross & M. Raubuch. 2003. Manganese toxicity in epiphytic lichens: chlorophyll degradation and interaction with iron and phosphorus. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49: 181–191.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[MM12] Mao, K., R. I. Milne, L. Zhang, Y. Peng, J. Liu, P. Thomas, R. R. Mill & S. S. Renner. 2012. Distribution of living Cupressaceae reflects the breakup of Pangea. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (20): 7793–7798.

[M87] McAlpine, J. F. 1987. Pallopteridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 839–843. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[RCT96] Ragusa Di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 1996. A. survey of phytoseiid mites (Phytoseiidae) associated with various plants in Sicily (Italy). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 253–256. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[SM14] Smith, G. B., & J. M. McRae. 2014. New species of subterranean silverfish (Zygentoma: Nicoletiidae: Atelurinae) from Western Australia's semi-arid Pilbara region. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29: 105–127.

[T85] Tsurusaki, N. 1985. Geographic variation of chromosomes and external morphology in the montanum-subgroup of the Leiobunum curvipalpe-group (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangiidae) with special reference to its presumable process of raciation. Zoological Science 2: 767–783.

[T03] Tsurusaki, N. 2003. Phenology and biology of harvestmen in and near Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, with some taxonomical notes on Nelima suzukii n. sp. and allies (Arachnida: Opiliones). Acta Arachnologica 52: 5–24.

[W85] Walter, D. E. 1985. The effects of litter type and elevation on colonization of mixed coniferous litterbags by oribatid mites. Pedobiologia 28: 383–387.

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