Laemobothrion tinnunculi, copyright Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.

Belongs within: Nanopsocetae.
Contains: Philopteridae, Trichodectidae, Anoplura, Menoponidae.

The Phthiraptera, true lice, are a group of small, wingless insects that live as external parasites on warm-blooded vertebrates.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Apterous; head with very limited movement; eyes highly reduced (only several facets), usually completely lost; ocelli absent; dorsal tentorial arms lost; lacinial stylets reduced or lost; maxillae reduced or lost; antennae reduced to three flagellomeres. Metathoracic spiracle absent; third thoracic ganglion fused with abdominal ganglion. Egg with hydropile and operculum, cemented to host hair or feather. Three nymphal instars.

<==Phthiraptera [Mallophaga, Nyrmida, Parasita, Pediculida, Philopterina, Siphunculata]
    |--Euphthiraptera [Ischnocera, Philopteroidea] A99
    |    |  i. s.: Syrrhaptoecus Waterson 1928 T62
    |    |         Fulicoffula lurida A71
    |    |         Rallicola A71
    |    |         Sturnidoecus sturni A71
    |    |         Dasyonygidae RD77
    |    |--+--Trichophilopterus RD77 [Trichophilopteridae GE05]
    |    |  |--Philopteridae GE05
    |    |  `--+--Goniodes CM91 [Goniodidae GE05]
    |    |     |    `--G. dissimilis CM91
    |    |     `--Rhopaloceras [Heptapsogasteridae] GE05
    |    |          `--R. rudimentarius GE05
    |    `--+--Trichodectidae GE05
    |       |--Saurodectes [Saurodectidae] R02
    |       |    `--S. vrsanskyi GE05
    |       `--Lipognatha A99
    |            |--Anoplura R02
    |            `--Haematomyzus CM91 [Haematomyzidae, Haematomyzoidea, Rhynchophthiraptera, Rhynchophthirina R02]
    |                 |--H. elephantis GE05
    |                 |--H. hopkinsi GE05
    |                 `--H. porci GE05
    `--Amblycera [Ricinoidea] GE05
         |  i. s.: Neomenopon Bedford 1920 T62
         |         Bonomiella Conci 1937 T62
         |         Piagetiella australis CM91
         |--Abrocomophagidae GE05
         |--Menoponidae CM91
         |--Trimenoponidae CM91
         |    |--Trimenopon hispidum (Burmeister 1838) T62
         |    `--Harrisonia uncinata GE05
         |--Gyropidae CM91
         |    |--Gliricola porcelli CM91
         |    `--Gyropus CM91
         |         |--G. gracilis G20 [incl. Pediculus porcelli Linnaeus 1758 G20, L58]
         |         `--G. ovalis CM91
         |--Ricinidae CM91
         |    |--Trochilocoetes RD77
         |    `--Ricinus CM91
         |         |--R. corvi (Linnaeus 1758) L02b, L58 [=Pediculus corvi L02b]
         |         |--R. diffusus RD77
         |         |--R. ernstlangi CM91
         |         `--R. pavonis (Linnaeus 1758) L02a, L58 [=Pediculus pavonis L02a]
         |--Laemobothrion [Laemobothriidae] CM91
         |    |--L. africanum Kellogg 1908 K08
         |    |--L. atrum CM91
         |    |--L. circi A71
         |    |--L. gypsis K08
         |    |--L. setigerum K08
         |    |--L. tinnunculi CM91
         |    `--L. titan K08
         `--Boopiidae CM91
              |--Paraheterodoxus insignis CM91
              |--Therodoxus CM91
              |--Boopia [incl. Phacogalia] C74
              `--Heterodoxus CM91
                   |--H. ampullatus CM91
                   |--H. longitarsus C70
                   |--H. octoseriatus CM91
                   `--H. spiniger CM91

Phthiraptera incertae sedis:
  Esthiopterum Harrison 1916 T62
    |--*E. gruis T62
    `--E. raphidium A71
  Pseudolipeurus plumbeus (Pessoa & Guimarães 1935) [incl. P. uoe Eichler 1950] T62
  Trogoninirmus Eichler 1944 T62
  Trogoniella Tendeiro 1960 T62
  Splendoroffula Clay & Meinertzhagen 1941 T62
  Falcolipeurus A71
  Trochiloecetes A71
  Aquanirmus A71
    |--A. americanus A71
    |--A. bucomfistii A71
    `--A. colymbinus A71
  Ibidoecus bisignatus A71
  Ferribia A71
  Campanulotes defectus GE05
  Neotrichodectes mephitidis HN90
  Bruelia S69
    |--B. saltatora Carriker 1956 S69
    `--B. violacea Carriker 1963 S69
  Heptapsus nothocercae Carriker 1936 S69
  Oxylipeurus S69
    |--O. craxae Carriker 1944 S69
    `--O. pauxus Carriker 1944 S69
  Amyrisidea simplex S69
    |--A. s. simplex S69
    `--A. s. pauxis Carriker 1950 S69
  Conciella clamatori Carriker 1966 S69
  Trochiliphagus mellivorus Carriker 1960 S69
  Strigiphilus E61
    |--S. acutifrons Emerson 1961 E61
    |--S. cursor (Burmeister 1838) E61
    `--S. oculatus (Rudow 1870) [incl. S. bubonis (Osborn 1896)] E61
  Kurodaia E61
    |--K. edwardsi Emerson 1961 E61
    |--K. keleri Emerson 1961 E61
    |--K. magna Emerson 1960 E61
    `--K. pectinata (Osborn 1902) E61
  Liotheidae K08
    |--Liotheum cornicis [=Ricinus cornicis] G20
    `--Trinoton K08
         |--T. femoratum Piaget 1880 PJ02
         `--T. luridum K08
  ‘Neumannia’ Uchida 1926 nec Trouessart 1888 nec Weise 1907 EH19

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[C70] Calaby, J. H. 1970. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 376–386. Melbourne University Press.

[C74] Calaby, J. H. 1974. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 51–52. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Calaby, J. H., & M. D. Murray. 1991. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 421–428. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E61] Emerson, K. C. 1961. Three new species of Mallophaga from the great horned owl. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 187–192.

[EH19] Énay, R., & M. K. Howarth. 2019. Part L, revised, volume 3B, chapter 7: Systematic descriptions of the Perisphinctoidea. Treatise Online 120: 1–184.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HN90] Hafner, M. S., & S. A. Nadler. 1990. Cospeciation in host-parasite assemblages: comparative analysis of rates of evolution and timing of cospeciation events. Systematic Zoology 39 (3): 192–204.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906 vol. 3 section 15. Corrodentia pt 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[L02a] Latreille, P. A. 1802a. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L02b] Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[PJ02] Palma, R. L., A. R. Johnson, F. Cezilly, F. Thomas & F. Renard. 2002. Diversity and distribution of feather lice on greater flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) in the Camargue, sothern France. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 87–89.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 125–133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

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