Pygmy ground mantis Bolbe sp., possibly B. nigra, copyright Steve Kerr.

Belongs within: Mantodea.
Contains: Mantinae.

The Mantoidea are a major clade of mantids characterised by a long pronotum and the presence of a unique hearing organ (the 'cyclopean' ear) on the metathorax between the sternites and just anterior to the hind coxae (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Mantoidea GE05
    |  i. s.: Prochaeradodis enigmaticus G03
    |--Empusidae GE05
    |    |--Gongylus gongyloides TW05
    |    |--Empusa R13
    |    |    |--E. egena R13
    |    |    |--E. gongylodes G20
    |    |    `--E. pauperata R13
    |    `--Idolum de Saussure 1870 L89
    |         `--*I. diabolicum de Saussure 1870 L89
    |--Hymenopodidae GE05
    |    |--Chrysomantis TW05
    |    |--Hymenopus coronatus GE05
    |    |--Oxypilus RD77
    |    `--Acromantis [Acromantinae] TW05
    |         `--A. australis R96
    `--Mantidae [Manteidae] GE05
         |  i. s.: Tarachodes [Tarachodidae] Z02
         |         Myomantis caffra H04
         |         Prochaerododis enigmaticus GE05
         |         Iris [Irides] AN-A04
         |           `--L. oratoria AN-A04
         |         Ameles AN-A04
         |           |--A. abjecta AN-A04
         |           |--A. decolor AN-A04
         |           `--A. spallanzania AN-A04
         |         Pyrgomantis RD77
         |         Miomantis RD77
         |         Stagmomantis carolina RD77, BB16
         |--Choeradodis [Choeradodinae] Z02
         |--Comsothespinae Z02
         |--Liturgusinae [Liturgusidae] Z02
         |--Toxoderinae Z02
         |--Thespinae B91
         |--Compsothespinae B91
         |--Mantinae Z02
         |--Vatinae [Vatidae] Z02
         |    |--Stagmatoptera hyaloptera Z02, R15
         |    `--Parastagmatoptera Z02
         |         |--P. flavoguttata (Serville 1839) [=Mantis flavoguttata] R18
         |         `--P. unipunctata R15
         |--Miopteryginae R18
         |    |--Miopteryx argentina R15
         |    `--Musonia [=Promusonia Giglio-Tos 1916; incl. Mionyx] R18
         |         |--*M. surinama [=*Promusonia surinama] R18
         |         |--M. lineativentris [=*Mionyx lineativentris] R18
         |         `--M. major Saussure & Zehntner 1894 R18
         |--Orthoderinae Z02
         |    |--Orthoderina straminea R96
         |    `--Orthodera H04
         |         |--O. gunnii W70
         |         |--O. ministralis R96
         |         `--O. novaezealandiae H04
         |--Photinainae SB07
         |    |--Coptopteryx [Coptopteriges, Coptopterygini] SB07
         |    |    |--C. argentina R15
         |    |    |--C. crenaticollis BM76
         |    |    `--C. gayi BM76
         |    `--Photinaini [Orthoderellae] SB07
         |         |--Orthoderella ornata R15
         |         `--Photina Burmeister 1838 SB07
         |              `--*P. vitrea (Burmeister 1838) (see below for synonymy) SB07
         `--Iridopteryginae R96
              |--Ciulfina R96
              |--Neomantis australis R96
              |--Kongobatha diademata R96
              |--Calofulcinia R96
              |--Ima fusca R96
              `--Bolbe R96
                   |--B. maia B91
                   |--B. nigra R96
                   `--B. pallida K70

*Photina vitrea (Burmeister 1838) [=Mantis (*Photina) vitrea (nom. cons.) non Stoll 1813, Cardioptera vitrea, Metriomantis vitrea; incl. Photina amplipennis Stål 1877] SB07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AN-A04] Askew, R. R., & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2004. Further observations on Eupelminae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae) in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands, including descriptions of new species. Graellsia 60 (1): 27–39.

[BB16] Bai, M., R. G. Beutel, K.-D. Klass, W. Zhang, X. Yang & B. Wipfler. 2016. Alienoptera—a new insect order in the roach-mantodean twilight zone. Gondwana Research 39: 317–326.

[B91] Balderson, J. 1991. Mantodea (praying mantids). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 348–356. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G03] Grimaldi, D. 2003. A revision of Cretaceous mantises and their relationships, including new taxa (Insecta: Dictyoptera: Mantodea). American Museum Novitates 3412: 1–47.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H04] Harris, A. C. 2004. Range extensions of Ancistrocerus gazella (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) and Myomantis caffra (Mantodea: Mantidae). Weta 27: 31–32.

[K70] Key, K. H. L. 1970. Mantodea (praying mantids). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 294–301. Melbourne University Press.

[L89] Lucas, H. 1889. Notes suivantes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: lxxxii–lxxxiii.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[SB07] Svenson, G. J., & M. A. Branham. 2007. Photinini LeConte, 1881 (Insecta, Coleoptera) and Photininae Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Insecta, Mantodea): proposed resolution of homonymy between family-group names. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 64 (4): 243–251.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[W70] White, M. J. D. 1970. Cytogenetics. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 72–82. Melbourne University Press.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Order Mantida Latreille, 1802. The mantises (=Mantodea Burmeister, 1838). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 273–276. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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