Araneida

Chimerarachne yingi, copyright Bo Yang.


Belongs within: Tetrapulmonata.
Contains: Mesothelae, Mygalomorphae, Basalhaplogynae, Neocribellatae.

The Araneida are a clade of arachnids including the spiders (Araneae) and the Cretaceous Chimerarachne, united by the organisation of the openings of the silk glands into a group of spinnerets at the end of the opisthosoma, and modification of the male pedipalp as an organ for sperm transfer. Chimerarachne yingi is known from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber and differs from modern spiders in retaining a long terminal flagellum (Wunderlich 2019). The tarsus of the pedipalp bears a pair of apical apophyses in some but not all of the known specimens; the modified pedipalp has been interpreted as a sperm transfer organ like that of modern male spiders. Modern spiders are also characterised by the modification of the chelicerae to bear venomous fangs. In most living spiders, forming the clade Opisthothelae, all trace of external segmentation has been lost from the abdomen. The fangs are plesiomorphically parallel with one another but in members of the clade Araneomorphae they close towards the midline of the body.

Araneida W19
    |--Chimerarachne Wang et al. 2018 [Chimerarachnida, Chimerarachnidae] W19
    |    `--C. yingi Wang et al. 2018 W19
    `--Araneae [Arachnides, Aranea, Aranina, Artharachnae, Parallelodontes] GD16
         |  i. s.: Archoleptona schusteri UB02
         |         Blabomma UB02
         |         Bryantella smaragdus (Crane 1945) [incl. Parnaenus convexus Chickering 1946] J02
         |         Pterinochilus WS02
         |           |--P. carnivorus Strand 1917 J98
         |           `--P. nigrofulvus (Pocock 1898) WS02
         |         Lophomma punctatum RKD02
         |         Tholia KK90
         |           |--T. conifera Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |           |--T. mammeata Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |           |--T. peltata Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |           |--T. pilosa Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |           |--T. simpla Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |           `--T. tuberculata Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |         Heurodes Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |           `--*H. turrita Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |         Carepalxis Koch 1872 KK90
         |           |--C. bilobata Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |           |--C. furcula Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |           `--C. tuberculata Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |         Ulesanis Koch 1872 KK90
         |           `--U. sextuberculata Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
         |         Wirada Keyserling 1886 KK90
         |           `--W. rotunda Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
         |         Tobesoa Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
         |           `--*T. theridioides Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
         |         Diaca insulana Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
         |         Gmogala Koch & Keyserling 1890 [=Imogala (l. c.)] KK90
         |           `--*G. scarabaea Koch & Keyserling 1890 [=Imogala (l. c.) scarabaea] KK90
         |         Euro permunda B96
         |         Daramulunia [=Daramuliana (l. c.)] C90
         |         Pyritaraneidae D07
         |           |--Pyritaranea tubifera F04
         |           `--Dinopilio Fritsch 1904 D07, F04
         |                `--*D. gigas Fritsch 1904 F04
         |         Amphitrogulus sternalis Gourret 1886 D07
         |         Phalangillum hirsutum Gourret 1886 D07
         |         Tidarren sisyphoides CM07
         |         Novakia ‘trituberculata’ (Urquhart 1887) [=Epeira trituberculata non Lucas 1846] NS00
         |         Phalaea marginata Strand 1907 J98
         |         Barusia maheni (Kratochvíl & Miller 1939) UO05
         |         Hadites tegenarioides Keyserling 1862 UO05
         |         Ariadne Doleschall 1857 D57
         |           `--*A. flagellum Doleschall 1857 D57
         |         Sarinda linda C08
         |         Perneria Fritsch 1904 F04
         |           `--*P. salticoides [=Arthrolycosa salticoides] F04
         |         Pleurolycosa Fritsch 1904 F04
         |           `--*P. prolifera [=Arthrolycosa prolifera] F04
         |         Acrosoma H04
         |           |--A. bifurcatum H04
         |           |--A. hexacanthum H04
         |           `--A. spinosum H04
         |         Troglodiplura lowryi Y95
         |         Desidiopsis racovitzai PP64
         |         Sanogasta backhauseni R14
         |         Cupa kalawitana R14
         |         Acanthodon P01
         |           |--A. flaveolum Pocock 1901 P01
         |           `--A. thorellii P01
         |         Heligmomerus P01
         |           |--H. deserti Pocock 1901 P01
         |           `--H. somalicus P01
         |--Mesothelae S02
         `--Opisthothelae S02
              |--Mygalomorphae S02
              `--Araneomorphae (see below for synonymy) S02
                   |  i. s.: Phrynarachne decipiens B96
                   |         Dendrolycosa Doleschall 1859 D59
                   |           `--*D. fusca Doleschall 1859 D59
                   |--Basalhaplogynae W19
                   `--Neocribellatae W19

Araneomorphae [Antiodontes, Arachnomorphae, Araneoclada, Hypochilomorphae, Inaequitelae, Tubitelariae] S02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[C08] Ceccarelli, F. S. 2008. Behavioral mimicry in Myrmarachne species (Araneae, Salticidae) from north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 344–351.

[C90] Coddington, J. A. 1990. Book review: Advances in spider taxonomy 1981–1987: a supplement to Brignoli’s A catalogue of the Araneae described between 1940 and 1981 (edited by P. Merrett), by Norman I. Platnick. Journal of Arachnology 18: 245–248.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[D07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F04] Fritsch, A. 1904. Palaeozoische Arachniden. Selestverlag: Prague.

[GD16] Garwood, R. J., J. A. Dunlop, P. A. Selden, A. R. T. Spencer, R. C. Atwood, N. T. Vo & M. Drakopoulos. 2016. Almost a spider: a 305-million-year-old fossil arachnid and spider origins. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 283: 20160125.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[J02] Jocqué, R. 2002. Genitalic polymorphism—a challenge for taxonomy. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 298–306.

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P01] Pocock, R. I. 1901. Descriptions of some new African Arachnida. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 284–288.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416–424.

[S02] Selden, P. A. 2002. First British Mesozoic spider, from Cretaceous amber of the Isle of Wight, southern England. Palaeontology 45 (5): 973–983.

[UB02] Ubick, D., & T. S. Briggs. 2002. The harvestman family Phalangodidae 4. A review of the genus Banksula (Opiliones, Laniatores). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 435–451.

[UO05] Ubick, D., & R. Ozimec. 2005. On the harvestman genus Lola Kratochvíl (Opiliones: Laniatores). Natura Croatica 14 (3): 161–174.

[WS02] Whitmore, C., R. Slotov, T. E. Crouch & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2002. Diversity of spiders (Araneae) in a savanna reserve, Northern Province, South Africa. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 344–356.

[W19] Wunderlich, J. 2019. What is a spider? Cretaceous fossils modify strongly phylogenetics as well as diagnoses of families, superfamilies and even suborders of spiders (Araneida) and other arthropods. Beiträge zur Araneologie 12: 1–32.

[Y95] Yen, A. L. 1995. Australian spiders: an opportunity for conservation. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 39–47.

Last updated: 12 October 2019.

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