Pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, copyright Epitree.

Belongs within: Hygrophila.

The Lymnaeinae are a cosmopolitan group of dextral freshwater snails of varying size and shape.

Lymnaeinae BR05
    |--Limnophysa Fitzinger 1833 [Limnophysidae] BR05
    |    `--*L. palustris (Müller 1774) [=Buccinum palustre] BR17
    |--Acella Haldeman 1841 [Acellinae] BR05
    |    `--*A. gracilis (Jay 1839) [=Lymnaea gracilis] BR17
    |--Fossaria Westerlund 1885 [Fossarianinae, Fossariinae] BR05
    |    |--*F. truncatula (Müller 1774) BR17 [=Buccinum truncatulum BR17, Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula PB27]
    |    |--F. decampi (Streng 1896) P88
    |    |--F. exigua (Lea 1821) P88
    |    |--F. galbana (Say 1825) B97
    |    |--F. modicella (Say 1825) P88
    |    `--F. parva (Lea 1841) P88
    |--Galba Schrank 1803 PB27
    |    |--*G. pusilla Schrank 1803 [=Lymnaea (*Galba) pusilla] PB27
    |    |--G. accelerata (White 1886) TTE93
    |    |--G. ativuncula (White 1886) TTE93
    |    |--G. consortis (White 1886) TTE93
    |    |--G. meikiensis Yu 1980 ZZ88
    |    |--G. subtruncatula (Boettger 1910) [=Limnaea subtruncatula, Lymnaea (Galba) subtruncatula] PB27
    |    `--G. umlaasiana (Küster 1862) [=Limnaeus umlaasianus, Lymnaea (Galba) umlaasiana] PB27
    `--Lymnaea Lamarck 1799 RGG06 (see below for synonymy)
         |  i. s.: L. alfredi Suter 1890 P61
         |           |--L. a. alfredi P61
         |           `--L. a. hamiltoni Dell 1956 P61
         |         L. ampla Mighels 1843 [=Limnea (l. c.) ampla] J49
         |         L. bulimoides PF15
         |           |--L. b. bulimoides PF15
         |           `--L. b. cockerelli PF15
         |         L. columella Say 1817 [=Pseudosuccinea columella] RGG06
         |         L. corvus (Gmelin 1791) L06
         |         L. dalli PF15
         |         L. elodes CA84
         |         L. decollata Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
         |         L. diaphana King 1830 RGG06
         |         L. emarginata Say 1821 B97
         |         L. fragilis (Linnaeus 1758) PB27, L58 [=Helix fragilis PB27, Bulimus fragilis PB27]
         |         L. hopii (Robinson 1915) TTE93
         |         L. luteola CCG01
         |         L. mauritiana RW84
         |         L. minuta CS77
         |         L. oahuensis PB27
         |         L. obrussa PF15
         |         L. ollula MK10
         |         L. ovata D56
         |         L. palustris (Müller 1774) L06 [incl. L. palustris var. turricula S01]
         |         L. parva PF15
         |         L. peregra (Müller 1774) L06 [incl. L. peregra var. geisericola PB27, L. peregra var. thermalis PB27]
         |         L. pictonica Rochebrune & Mabille 1885 RGG06
         |         L. plicata Hylton Scott 1953 RGG06
         |         L. rufescens (see below for synonymy) TC89
         |         L. swinhoei Adams 1866 A66
         |         L. viatrix (d’Orbigny 1835) RGG06
         |--*L. (Lymnaea) stagnalis (Linnaeus 1758) P61, L06 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--L. s. stagnalis T59
         |    `--L. s. appressa T59
         `--L. (Cerasina) PB27
              |--L. (C.) bulla PB27
              `--L. (C.) acuminata PB27

Nomina nuda: Limnaea aegyptiaca Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea amygdalina Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea astilba Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea astilba Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea cleopatrae Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea expansilabris Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea forskali Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea lessepsiana Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea letourneuxi Bourguignat 1899 PB27

Lymnaea Lamarck 1799 RGG06 [=Eulimneus Sandberger 1875 PB27, Limnaea de Blainville 1825 PB27, Limnea Fleming 1828 PB27, Limneus Draparnaud 1805 PB27, Lymnaeus Cuvier 1817 PB27, Lymneus Brard 1815 PB27, Lymnula Rafinesque 1819 PB27, Lymnus Denys de Montfort 1810 PB27; incl. Leachia Risso 1826 PB27, BR05; Leachiae]

Lymnaea rufescens [incl. L. acuminata, L. rufescens var. attenuata, L. chlamys Benson 1836, L. rufescens var. patula, L. pectinoides] TC89

*Lymnaea (Lymnaea) stagnalis (Linnaeus 1758) P61, L06 [=Helix stagnalis BR17, Bulimus stagnalis PB27, Limneus (*Eulimneus) stagnalis PB27, *Lymnula stagnalis PB27, *Lymnus stagnalis PB27; incl. Limneus major PB27, *Leachia major PB27, Lymnaea tenella P61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A66] Adams, H. 1866. Descriptions of fifteen new species of land and freshwater shells from Formosa, collected by Robert Swinhoe, Esq., consul at Taiwan in that island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 316–319.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[B97] Brown, K. M. 1997. Temporal and spatial patterns of abundance in the gastropod assemblage of a macrophyte bed. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 27–33.

[CCG01] Canivet, V., P. Chambon & J. Gibert. 2001. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of arsenic and chromium in epigean and hypogean freshwater macroinvertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40: 345–354.

[CA84] Carter, M. A., & M. Ashdown. 1984. Experimental studies on the effects of density, size, and shell colour and banding phenotypes on the fecundity of Cepaea nemoralis. Malacologia 25 (2): 291–302.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[L06] Lewin, I. 2006. The gastropod communities in the lowland rivers of agricultural areas—their biodiversity and bioindicative value in the Ciechanowska Upland, central Poland. Malacologia 49 (1): 7–23.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MK10] Marinoni, L., & L. Knutson. 2010. Sciomyzidae (snail-killing flies, marsh flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1017–1024. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[PF15] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. H. Ferriss. 1915. Mollusca of the southwestern states, VII: the Dragoon, Mule, Santa Rita, Baboquivari, and Tucson Ranges, Arizona. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 363–418, pls 8–15.

[P88] Pip, E. 1988. Niche congruency of freshwater gastropods in central North America with respect to six water chemistry parameters. Nautilus 102 (2): 65–72.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RW84] Rollinson, D., & C. A. Wright. 1984. Population studies on Bulinus cernicus from Mauritius. Malacologia 25 (2): 447–463.

[RGG06] Rumi, A., D. E. Gutiérrez Gregoric, V. Núñez, I. I. César, M. A. Roche, M. P. Tassara, S. M. Martín & M. F. López Armengol. 2006. Freshwater Gastropoda from Argentina: species richness, distribution patterns, and an evaluation of endangered species. Malacologia 49 (1): 189–208.

[S01] Sturany, R. 1901. Csigák és kagylók [Mollusken]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 69–74. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[T59] Thomas, G. J. 1959. Self-fertilization and production of young in a sphaeriid clam. Nautilus 72 (4): 131–140.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[ZZ88] Zhu G.-X. & Zhou Y.-Z. 1988. Fresh-water molluscan fauna across Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary in southeast Jilin. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 27 (6): 713–721.

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