Reconstruction of Arthrolycosa fortis, from Fritsch (1904).

Belongs within: Araneida.

The Mesothelae are a group of spiders in which the abdomen retains external segmentation, the fangs are obliquely angled and the spinnerets are more or less displaced to the centre of the abdomen (Wunderlich 2019). Living members of the group are restricted to eastern Asia and inhabit tubular burrows with a trapdoor (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

<==Mesothelae [Liphistiomorphae, Verticulatae] S02
    |  i. s.: Palaeothele montceauensis SSS08
    |         Eothele Selden 2000 W19
    |         Vinathela nahang W19
    |--Arthromygalidae S93
    |    |--Protocteniza britannica Petrunkevitch 1949 S93
    |    `--Protolycosa S93
    |         |--P. anthracophyla Römer 1866 F04
    |         `--P. cebennensis Laurentiaux-Vieira & Laurentiaux 1963 S93
    |--Arthrolycosidae S93
    |    |--Geralycosa fritschii Kušta 1888 F04
    |    |--Rakovnicia antiqua Kušta 1884 F04
    |    |--Eotarbis litoralis Kušta 1888 F04
    |    |--Eocteniza silvicola Pocock 1911 S93
    |    `--Arthrolycosa [incl. Eolycosa Kušta 1885, Scudderia Kušta 1888] F04
    |         |--A. antiqua Harger 1874 S93
    |         |--A. beecheri Fritsch 1904 F04
    |         |--‘Palaranea’ borassifoliae [=Arthrolycosa palaranea Fritsch 1904] F04
    |         |--A. carbonaria (Kušta 1888) [=*Scudderia carbonaria] F04
    |         |--A. danielsi Petrunkevitch 1913 S93
    |         |--A. fortis Fritsch 1904 F04
    |         `--A. lorenzi (Kušta 1885) [=*Eolycosa lorenzi] F04
    |--Eomesothelidae W19
    |    |--Eomesothele Wunderlich 2019 W19
    |    |    `--*E. noninclinata Wunderlich 2019 W19
    |    `--Intermesothele Wunderlich 2019 W19
    |         `--*I. pulcher Wunderlich 2019 W19
    |--Heptathele Kishida 1923 JD-S07 [Heptathelidae W19]
    |    |--H. hangzhouensis WT06
    |    |--H. nishiharai H95
    |    `--H. kimurai FF99
    |--Burmathele Wunderlich 2017 [Burmathelidae] W19
    |    `--B. biseriata Wunderlich 2017 W19
    |--Cretaceothele [Cretaceothelidae] W19
    |    `--C. lata Wunderlich 2015 W19
    |--Parvithelidae W19
    |    |--Parvithele Wunderlich 2017 W19
    |    `--Pulvillothele haupti Wunderlich 2017 W19
    `--Liphistiidae JD-S07
         |--Nanthela Haupt 2003 JD-S07
         |--Songthela Ono 2000 JD-S07
         |--Palaeocteniza crassipes B86
         |--Ryuthela Haupt 1983 JD-S07
         |    `--R. nishihirai (Haupt 1969) H07
         `--Liphistius Schiödte 1849 JD-S07
              |--L. batuensis R95
              |--L. bicoloripes (Ono 1988) GE02
              |--L. desultor JD-S07
              |--L. lannaianus JD-S07
              |--L. malayanus WY88
              `--L. sumatranus JD-S07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B86] Bernini, F. 1986. Current ideas on the phylogeny and the adaptive radiations of Acarida. Bolletino di Zoologia 53: 279–313.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[F04] Fritsch, A. 1904. Palaeozoische Arachniden. Selestverlag: Prague.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70.

[H07] Haupt, J. 2007. The whipscorpion Minbosius manilanus (C. L. Koch 1843) on Panay Island (Philippines) (Arachnida, Uropygi, Thelyphonidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 135–136.

[H95] Humphreys, W. F. 1995. Chorion surface features of chelicerate eggs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 171–181.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[R95] Raven, R. J. 1995. Coxal glands of spiders of the genera Bymainiella, Atrax and Namea (Hexathelidae, Dipluridae, Mygalomorphae). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 67–71.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SSS08] Selden, P. A., W. A. Shear & M. D. Sutton. 2008. Fossil evidence for the origin of spider spinnerets, and a proposed arachnid order. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (52): 20781–20785.

[WT06] Waeschenbach, A., M. J. Telford, J. S. Porter & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2006. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustrellidra hispida and the phylogenetic position of Bryozoa among the Metazoa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 195–207.

[WY88] Welbourn, W. C., & O. P. Young. 1988. Mites parasitic on spiders, with a description of a new species of Eutrombidium (Acari, Eutrombidiidae). Journal of Arachnology 16: 373–385.

[W19] Wunderlich, J. 2019. What is a spider? Cretaceous fossils modify strongly phylogenetics as well as diagnoses of families, superfamilies and even suborders of spiders (Araneida) and other arthropods. Beiträge zur Araneologie 12: 1–32.

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