Ripiphoridae

Female wedge-shaped beetle Ripiphorus cf. fasciatus, copyright Karl Hillig.


Belongs within: Tenebrionoidea.

The Ripiphoridae are a group of beetles whose larvae are parasitoids of other insects.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Elongate, often laterally compressed and posteriorly tapered. Body often subglabrous or clothed with decumbent hairs; head may be strongly deflexed and abruptly constricted behind eyes to form neck which may or may not be visible; antenna 7- or 11-segmented, filiform, serrate, pectinate, flabellate or with single-segmented club; eyes slightly to strongly emarginate, sometimes very large; elytra may be entire and slightly dehiscent, exposing abdominal apex, or highly reduced exposing most of abdomen; fore coxae projecting, trochantins exposed or concealed, fore coxal cavities externally open, internally open or closed; mesocoxal cavities contiguous or moderately separated, laterally open; tarsal formula 5-5-4 or 4-4-4; abdomen with five to seven or nine ventrites, no ventrites connate.

Ripiphoridae
    |--Ptilophorinae LB91
    |--Pelecotominae LB91
    |    |--Trigonodera marmorata LB91
    |    `--Pelecotoma MW15
    |--Hemirhipidiinae LB91
    |    |--Nephrites nitidus Shuck 1838 LB91, M86
    |    `--Sitarida LB91
    |         |--S. hopei M86
    |         `--S. scabriceps LB91
    |--Rhipidiinae LB91
    |    |--Rhipidius A71
    |    |--Riekella australis LB91
    |    |--Paranephrites xenus LB91
    |    `--Rhipidioides LB91
    |         |--R. helenae LB91
    |         `--R. rubricatus LB91
    `--Ripiphorinae B14
         |--Ripiphorus B14
         |    |--R. fasciatus A71
         |    |--R. paradoxus L02
         |    |--R. subdipterus A71
         |    `--R. vierecki (Fall 1907) B14
         `--Macrosiagonini B14
              |--Metoecus paradoxus B14, A71
              `--Macrosiagon B14
                   |--M. limbatum (Fabricius 1781) B14
                   `--M. lineare BM76

Ripiphoridae incertae sedis:
  Rhipistena lugubris Sharp 1878 H82
  Evaniocera M86
    |--E. boryi Lucas 1847 E12
    |--E. gerstackeri Macleay 1872 M86
    |--E. nervosa (Gerstäck 1855) [=Ptilophorus nervosus] M86
    `--E. pruinosa (Gerstäck 1855) [=Ptilophorus pruinosus] M86
  Pirhidius MW15
  Pelecotomoides M86
    |--P. conicollis M86
    |--P. gerstackeri Macleay 1872 M86
    |--P. lutea (Gerstäck 1855) [=Trigonodera lutea] M86
    |--P. marmorata B70
    |--P. mastersi Macleay 1872 M86
    |--P. nuda (Gerstäck 1855) [=Trigonodera nuda] M86
    |--P. senilis (Gerstäck 1855) [=Trigonodera senilis] M86
    `--P. sericea (Gerstäck 1855) [=Trigonodera sericea] M86
  Euctenia sericea Gerstäck 1855 M86
  Emenadia M86
    |--E. luteipennis Macleay 1872 M86
    |--E. maculicollis Bohem. 1858 M86
    |--E. novaehollandiae Gerstäck 1855 M86
    |--E. sobrina Waterh. 1883 M86
    `--E. tricolor Gerstäck 1855 M86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part IV. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 259–380.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

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