Tipulidae

Dicranota larva, copyright Tom Murray.


Belongs within: Diptera.
Contains: Limnophilini, Cylindrotominae, Tipulinae, Limonia, Dicranomyia.

The Tipulidae, crane flies, are a cosmopolitan group of mostly slender, long-legged flies that differ from all other flies in the presence of a V-shaped suture dividing the mesoscutum, and usually two complete anal veins in the wings (if present).

Characters (from Alexander & Byers 1981): Typically slender-bodied. Ocelli absent. Mesonotum with transverse V-shaped suture. Wing elongate, rather narrow. Legs very long and slender, breaking readily at suture between trochanter and femur.

<==Tipulidae [Limoniidae, Limoniinae, Tipuloidea] AB81
    |--Pediciini [Pediciidae] AB81
    |    |--Ula elegans WT11
    |    |--Ornithodes AB81
    |    |--Nasiternella hyperborea AB81
    |    |--Pedicia AB81
    |    |    |  i. s.: P. albovitta A16
    |    |    |         P. hannai HP68
    |    |    |--P. (Pedicia) bellamyana AB81
    |    |    `--P. (Tricyphona) AB81
    |    |         |--‘Tricyphona’ calcar A16
    |    |         |--‘Tricyphona’ inconstans A16
    |    |         `--P. (T.) protea AB81
    |    `--Dicranota AB81
    |         |  i. s.: D. reitteri Mik 1881 TKM93
    |         |--D. (Eudicranota) pallida AB81
    |         |--D. (Plectromyia) reducta AB81
    |         |    |--D. r. reducta AB81
    |         |    `--D. r. tehamicola AB81
    |         |--D. (Polyangaeus) subapterogyne AB81
    |         |--D. (Rhaphidolabina) flaveola AB81 [=Rhaphidolabis flaveola A16]
    |         `--D. (Rhaphidolabis) AB81
    |              |--‘Rhaphidolabis’ rubescens A16
    |              `--D. (R.) tenuipes AB81
    `--+--Limnophilini WT11
       `--+--Cylindrotominae WT11
          `--+--Tipulinae WT11
             `--Limoniini AB81
                  |--Limonia AB81
                  |--Elliptera tennessa AB81
                  |--Dicranoptycha germana AB81
                  |--Thaumastoptera hynesi AB81
                  |--Atypophthalmus (Atypophthalmus) umbratus G09
                  |--Dicranomyia G09
                  |--Tonnoiromyia CM91
                  |--Antocha WT11
                  |    |--A. obtusa WT11
                  |    `--A. saxicola AB81
                  |--Helius (Helius) AB81, G09
                  |    |--H. (H.) albitarsis G09
                  |    |--H. (H.) darlingtonae G09
                  |    `--H. (H.) flavipes G09
                  |--Geranomyia CM91
                  |    |--G. canadensis G09
                  |    |--G. recondita G09
                  |    `--G. subvirescens G09
                  |--Rhipidia (Rhipidia) G09
                  |    |--R. (R.) lecontei G09 [=Limonia (Rhipidia) lecontei AB81]
                  |    |--R. (R.) multiguttata G09
                  |    |--R. (R.) subcostalis G09
                  |    `--R. (R.) willistoniana G09
                  `--Orimarga AB81
                       |--O. (Orimarga) G09
                       |    |--O. (O.) attenuata G09
                       |    |--O. (O.) nigroapicalis G09
                       |    `--O. (O.) niveitarsis G09
                       `--O. (Diotrepha) G09
                            |--O. (D.) flavescens G09
                            `--O. (D.) mirabilis AB81

Tipulidae incertae sedis:
  Aphrophila TE03
  Architipula WT11
  Styringomyia G09
    |--S. maya G09
    `--S. paulista G09
  Amphineurus M81
  Trentepohlia G09
    |--T. (Mongoma) pennipes G09
    `--T. (Paramongoma) G09
         |--T. (P.) aequivena G09
         `--T. (P.) dominicana G09
  Lechria [Lechriini] CM91
  Paralimnophila setulicornis CM91
  Limnobia A16
    |--L. cinctipes A16
    |--L. indigena A16
    `--L. solitaria A16
  Rhypholophus A16
    |--R. meigeni A16
    `--R. rubellus A16
  Adelphomyia minuta A16
  Oropeza venosa A16
  Xiphura frontalis A16
  Semnotes imperatoria CM70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[AB81] Alexander, C. P., & G. W. Byers. 1981. Tipulidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 153–190. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G09] Gelhaus, J. K. 2009. Tipulidae (crane flies, tipĂșlidos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 193–236. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[HP68] Holmes, R. T., & F. A. Pitelka. 1968. Food overlap among coexisting sandpipers on northern Alaskan tundra. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 305–318.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[TE03] Taylor, R. C., & R. M. Ewers. 2003. The invertebrate fauna inhabiting tree holes in a red beech (Nothofagus fusca) tree. Weta 25: 24–28.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311–325.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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