Orimarga mirabilis, copyright James V. Remsen.

Belongs within: Tipulomorpha.
Contains: Dicranota, Limnophilini, Cylindrotominae, Tipulinae, Limonia, Dicranomyia.

The Tipulidae, crane flies, are a cosmopolitan group of mostly slender, long-legged flies that differ from all other flies in the presence of a V-shaped suture dividing the mesoscutum, and usually two complete anal veins in the wings (if present). Some classifications divide the Tipulidae between three families Tipulidae, Cylindrotomidae and Limoniidae; not only is the broader sense of Tipulidae used here but it seems possible that the subfamily 'Limoniinae' is paraphyletic to the Cylindrotominae and Tipulinae (e.g. Wiegmann et al. 2011). The Pediciini, historically included in the Limoniinae, are characterised by hairy eyes with short hairs between the ommatidia (Alexander & Byers 1981).

Characters (from Alexander & Byers 1981): Typically slender-bodied. Ocelli absent. Mesonotum with transverse V-shaped suture. Wing elongate, rather narrow. Legs very long and slender, breaking readily at suture between trochanter and femur.

<==Tipulidae [Architipulidae, Eoasilidae, Limnobiinae, Limoniidae, Tipuloidea] G09
    |--Pediciini [Pediciidae] AB81
    |    |--Ula elegans WT11
    |    |--Ornithodes AB81
    |    |--Nasiternella hyperborea AB81
    |    |--Nipponomyia O98
    |    |--Dicranota G09
    |    `--Pedicia AB81
    |         |  i. s.: P. albovitta A16
    |         |         P. hannai HP68
    |         |--P. (Pedicia) bellamyana AB81
    |         `--P. (Tricyphona) AB81
    |              |--‘Tricyphona’ calcar A16
    |              |--‘Tricyphona’ inconstans A16
    |              `--P. (T.) protea AB81
    `--+--Limnophilini WT11
       `--+--Cylindrotominae WT11
          `--+--Tipulinae WT11
             `--Limoniinae [Lechriinae] O98
                  |--Lechria [Lechriini] CM91
                  `--Limoniini AB81
                       |--Limonia G09
                       |--Elliptera tennessa AB81
                       |--Thaumastoptera hynesi AB81
                       |--Atypophthalmus (Atypophthalmus) umbratus G09
                       |--Dicranomyia G09
                       |--Tonnoiromyia CM91
                       |--Dicranoptycha AB81
                       |    |--D. germana AB81
                       |    `--D. phallosomica Alexander 1937 A40
                       |--Antocha WT11
                       |    |--A. obtusa WT11
                       |    `--A. saxicola AB81
                       |--Helius (Helius) AB81
                       |    |--H. (H.) albitarsis G09
                       |    |--H. (H.) darlingtonae G09
                       |    `--H. (H.) flavipes G09
                       |--Geranomyia CM91
                       |    |--G. canadensis G09
                       |    |--G. recondita G09
                       |    `--G. subvirescens G09
                       |--Rhipidia (Rhipidia) G09
                       |    |--R. (R.) lecontei G09 [=Limonia (Rhipidia) lecontei AB81]
                       |    |--R. (R.) multiguttata G09
                       |    |--R. (R.) subcostalis G09
                       |    `--R. (R.) willistoniana G09
                       `--Orimarga AB81
                            |--O. (Orimarga) G09
                            |    |--O. (O.) attenuata G09
                            |    |--O. (O.) nigroapicalis G09
                            |    `--O. (O.) niveitarsis G09
                            `--O. (Diotrepha) G09
                                 |--O. (D.) flavescens G09
                                 `--O. (D.) mirabilis G09

Tipulidae incertae sedis:
  Aphrophila TE03
  Architipula WT11
  Styringomyia G09
    |--S. maya G09
    `--S. paulista G09
  Amphineurus M81
  Paralimnophila setulicornis CM91
  Limnobia A16
    |--L. cinctipes A16
    |--L. indigena A16
    |--L. rivosa (Linnaeus 1758) G20, L58 [=Tipula rivosa G20]
    `--L. solitaria A16
  Rhypholophus A16
    |--R. meigeni A16
    `--R. rubellus A16
  Adelphomyia minuta A16
  Oropeza venosa A16
  Xiphura frontalis A16
  Semnotes imperatoria CM70
  Dapanoptera O98
  Libnotes O98

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[A40] Alexander, C. P. 1940. New or little-known Tipulidae from eastern China. Notes d'Entomologie Chinoise 8 (1): 1–28.

[AB81] Alexander, C. P., & G. W. Byers. 1981. Tipulidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 153–190. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G09] Gelhaus, J. K. 2009. Tipulidae (crane flies, tipúlidos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 193–236. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HP68] Holmes, R. T., & F. A. Pitelka. 1968. Food overlap among coexisting sandpipers on northern Alaskan tundra. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 305–318.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[TE03] Taylor, R. C., & R. M. Ewers. 2003. The invertebrate fauna inhabiting tree holes in a red beech (Nothofagus fusca) tree. Weta 25: 24–28.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated; 27 December 2020.

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