Tipulidae

Dicranota larva, copyright Tom Murray.


Belongs within: Tipulomorpha.
Contains: Limnophilini, Cylindrotominae, Tipulinae, Limonia, Dicranomyia.

The Tipulidae, crane flies, are a cosmopolitan group of mostly slender, long-legged flies that differ from all other flies in the presence of a V-shaped suture dividing the mesoscutum, and usually two complete anal veins in the wings (if present). Some classifications divide the Tipulidae between three families Tipulidae, Cylindrotomidae and Limoniidae; not only is the broader sense of Tipulidae used here but it seems possible that the subfamily 'Limoniinae' is paraphyletic to the Cylindrotominae and Tipulinae (e.g. Wiegmann et al. 2011).

Characters (from Alexander & Byers 1981): Typically slender-bodied. Ocelli absent. Mesonotum with transverse V-shaped suture. Wing elongate, rather narrow. Legs very long and slender, breaking readily at suture between trochanter and femur.

<==Tipulidae [Limoniidae, Limoniinae, Tipuloidea] G09
    |--Pediciini [Pediciidae] AB81
    |    |--Ula elegans WT11
    |    |--Ornithodes AB81
    |    |--Nasiternella hyperborea AB81
    |    |--Pedicia AB81
    |    |    |  i. s.: P. albovitta A16
    |    |    |         P. hannai HP68
    |    |    |--P. (Pedicia) bellamyana AB81
    |    |    `--P. (Tricyphona) AB81
    |    |         |--‘Tricyphona’ calcar A16
    |    |         |--‘Tricyphona’ inconstans A16
    |    |         `--P. (T.) protea AB81
    |    `--Dicranota AB81
    |         |  i. s.: D. reitteri Mik 1881 TKM93
    |         |--D. (Eudicranota) pallida AB81
    |         |--D. (Plectromyia) reducta AB81
    |         |    |--D. r. reducta AB81
    |         |    `--D. r. tehamicola AB81
    |         |--D. (Polyangaeus) subapterogyne AB81
    |         |--D. (Rhaphidolabina) flaveola AB81 [=Rhaphidolabis flaveola A16]
    |         `--D. (Rhaphidolabis) AB81
    |              |--‘Rhaphidolabis’ rubescens A16
    |              `--D. (R.) tenuipes AB81
    `--+--Limnophilini WT11
       `--+--Cylindrotominae WT11
          `--+--Tipulinae WT11
             `--Limoniini AB81
                  |--Limonia AB81
                  |--Elliptera tennessa AB81
                  |--Dicranoptycha germana AB81
                  |--Thaumastoptera hynesi AB81
                  |--Atypophthalmus (Atypophthalmus) umbratus G09
                  |--Dicranomyia G09
                  |--Tonnoiromyia CM91
                  |--Antocha WT11
                  |    |--A. obtusa WT11
                  |    `--A. saxicola AB81
                  |--Helius (Helius) AB81
                  |    |--H. (H.) albitarsis G09
                  |    |--H. (H.) darlingtonae G09
                  |    `--H. (H.) flavipes G09
                  |--Geranomyia CM91
                  |    |--G. canadensis G09
                  |    |--G. recondita G09
                  |    `--G. subvirescens G09
                  |--Rhipidia (Rhipidia) G09
                  |    |--R. (R.) lecontei G09 [=Limonia (Rhipidia) lecontei AB81]
                  |    |--R. (R.) multiguttata G09
                  |    |--R. (R.) subcostalis G09
                  |    `--R. (R.) willistoniana G09
                  `--Orimarga AB81
                       |--O. (Orimarga) G09
                       |    |--O. (O.) attenuata G09
                       |    |--O. (O.) nigroapicalis G09
                       |    `--O. (O.) niveitarsis G09
                       `--O. (Diotrepha) G09
                            |--O. (D.) flavescens G09
                            `--O. (D.) mirabilis AB81

Tipulidae incertae sedis:
  Aphrophila TE03
  Architipula WT11
  Styringomyia G09
    |--S. maya G09
    `--S. paulista G09
  Amphineurus M81
  Trentepohlia G09
    |--T. (Mongoma) pennipes G09
    `--T. (Paramongoma) G09
         |--T. (P.) aequivena G09
         `--T. (P.) dominicana G09
  Lechria [Lechriini] CM91
  Paralimnophila setulicornis CM91
  Limnobia A16
    |--L. cinctipes A16
    |--L. indigena A16
    `--L. solitaria A16
  Rhypholophus A16
    |--R. meigeni A16
    `--R. rubellus A16
  Adelphomyia minuta A16
  Oropeza venosa A16
  Xiphura frontalis A16
  Semnotes imperatoria CM70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[AB81] Alexander, C. P., & G. W. Byers. 1981. Tipulidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 153–190. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G09] Gelhaus, J. K. 2009. Tipulidae (crane flies, tipĂșlidos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 193–236. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[HP68] Holmes, R. T., & F. A. Pitelka. 1968. Food overlap among coexisting sandpipers on northern Alaskan tundra. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 305–318.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[TE03] Taylor, R. C., & R. M. Ewers. 2003. The invertebrate fauna inhabiting tree holes in a red beech (Nothofagus fusca) tree. Weta 25: 24–28.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311–325.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated; 27 April 2018.

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