Spaniard Aciphylla squarrosa, copyright Krzysztof Golik.

Belongs within: Apiaceae.

Aciphylla, spaniards, is an Australasian genus of alpine plants with a tufted or tussock-like growth form and often spiky leaves.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Glabrous very small to very large perennial herbs with stout, often multicipital stocks and slender to very stout, deeply descending taproots; rarely rhizomatous. Leaves usually all basal, mostly compound, with close-set imbricated sheaths (dead sheaths often long remaining as an investiture). Lamina petiolate or not, usually pinnate to decompound; leaflets mostly rigid and pungent-pointed. Flowers mostly unisexual, plants mostly dioecious; inflorescence of compound bracted umbels arranged along an elongate extension of the central stem (section Aciphylla) or on spreading peduncles at apex of stem (section Paniculatae). Umbels of male plants ususlly laxer than those of females. Calyx-teeth minute to obsolete; petals white to yellowish, incurved, small; stylopodia male depressed, of female erect. Fruit narrow-oblong in outline; mericarp ribs 5-4-3, winged; vittae 1-3 per furrow, 2-5 commissural.

<==Aciphylla Forster & Forster 1776 A61
    |--A. sect. Aciphylla [=A. sect. Elongatae Allan 1961 (nom. inv.)] A61
    |    |--*A. squarrosa Forster & Forster 1776 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. anomala Allan 1961 A61
    |    |--A. aurea Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. colensoi Hooker 1864 [incl. A. colensoi var. conspicua Kirk 1899] A61
    |    |--A. crenulata Armst. 1879 [=A. lyallii var. crenulata Cheesem. 1906] A61
    |    |--A. ferox Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. flexuosa Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. glaucescens Oliver 1956 [incl. A. squarrosa var. flaccida Kirk 1899] A61
    |    |--A. gracilis Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. hectori Buchan. 1882 [incl. A. poppelwellii var. major Petrie 1921, A. poppelwellii Petrie 1921] A61
    |    |--A. hookeri Kirk 1899 A61
    |    |--A. horrida Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. indurata Cheesem. 1915 A61
    |    |--A. inermis Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. intermedia Petrie 1912 A61
    |    |--A. kirkii Buchan. 1887 A61
    |    |--A. latibracteata Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. lyallii Hooker 1864 [incl. A. cuthbertiana Petrie 1915, A. montana Armstrong 1872] A61
    |    |--A. pinnatifida Petrie 1911 A61
    |    |--A. scott-thomsonii Cockayne & Allan 1927 [incl. A. colensoi var. maxima Kirk 1899] A61
    |    |--A. subflabellata Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. takahea Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. townsonii Cheeseman 1906 A61
    |    |--A. traillii Kirk 1884 A61
    |    |    |--A. t. var. traillii A61
    |    |    `--A. t. var. cartilaginea (Petrie) Cheesem. 1925 [=A. cartilaginea Petrie 1915] A61
    |    |--A. traversii (Muell.) Hooker 1867 [=Gingidium traversii Muell. 1864] A61
    |    |--A. trifoliolata Petrie 1916 A61
    |    `--A. verticillata Oliver 1956 [incl. A. hectori Cheesem. 1925 non Buchan. 1882] A61
    `--A. sect. Paniculatae Allan 1961 A61
         |--A. (sect. *P.) spedenii Cheesem. 1913 A61
         |--A. congesta Cheesem. 1915 A61
         |--A. crosby-smithii Petrie 1915 A61
         |--A. dissecta (Kirk) Oliver 1956 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |--A. divisa Cheesem. 1923 A61
         |--A. dobsonii Hooker 1864 A61
         |--A. leighii Allan 1939 A61
         |--A. monroi Hooker 1855 A61 [=Gingidium monroi C06]
         |--A. multisecta Cheesem. 1915 A61
         |--A. polita (Kirk) Cheesem. 1906 [=Ligusticum politum Kirk 1899] A61
         |--A. similis Cheesem. 1915 A61
         `--A. simplex Petrie 1890 A61

Aciphylla dissecta (Kirk) Oliver 1956 [=Ligusticum dissectum Kirk 1899, Anisotome dissecta (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925] A61

*Aciphylla squarrosa Forster & Forster 1776 A61 [=Gingidium squarrosum C06; incl. Ligusticum aciphylla C06, A. squarrosa var. angustifolia Hooker 1853 A61, A. squarrosa var. latifolia Hooker 1853 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

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