Spiruromorpha

Rictularia sp., from Ranjabar et al. (2017). A: Anterior region and egg (camera lucida drawing); B: Anterior region showing sub ventral comb-like spine (10X); C: Anterior region showing teeth and egg; D: Anterior region showing glandular and muscular esophagus.


Belongs within: Secernentea.
Contains: Onchocercidae.

The Spiruromorpha are a group of parasitic nematodes with life cycles alternating between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.

Spiruromorpha [Spirurida]
    |  i. s.: Loa loa J02
    |         Wuchereria L02a
    |           |--W. bancrofti PB07 [incl. W. bancrofti var. pacifica Ge02]
    |           `--W. malayi MH96
    |--Desportesius [Acuariidae, Acuarioidea] LB02
    |--Camallanus H02 [Camallanidae, Camallanoidea LB02]
    |    `--C. lacustris H02
    |--Aproctoidea LB02
    |    |--Aproctidae LB02
    |    `--Desmidocercidae LB02
    |--Diplotriaenoidea LB02
    |    |--Diplotriaenidae LB02
    |    `--Oswaldofilariidae LB02
    |--Thelazoidea LB02
    |    |--Thelaziidae LB02
    |    |--Rhabdochonidae LB02
    |    `--Pneumospiruridae LB02
    |--Spiruroidea LB02
    |    |  i. s.: Physocephalus sexalatus Gi02
    |    |--Gongylonematidae LB02
    |    |--Spiruridae LB02
    |    |--Spirocercidae LB02
    |    `--Hartertiidae LB02
    |--Physalopteridae [Physalopteroidea] LB02
    |    |--Abbreviata paradoxa Gi02
    |    `--Physaloptera P89b
    |         |--P. abbreviata P89b
    |         |--P. gemina Gi02
    |         |--P. phrynsoma MM02
    |         |--P. retusa P89b
    |         `--P. varani Parona 1889 P89b
    |--Rictulariidae [Rictularoidea] LB02
    |    |--Pterygodermatites alphi [=Mesopectines alphi] Gi02
    |    `--Rictularia P89b
    |         |--R. bovieri Blanchard 1886 P89b
    |         |--R. cristata Frölich 1802 [=Ophiostomum cristatum] P89b
    |         |--R. dipodomis Tiner 1948 S69
    |         |--R. elvirae Parona 1889 P89b
    |         |--R. macdonaldi (Dobson 1880) [=Pterygodermatites macdonaldi, Ophiostoma macdonaldi] P89b
    |         `--R. plagiostoma (Weld 1861) (see below for synonymy) P89b
    |--Habronematoidea LB02
    |    |  i. s.: Parabronema indicum Gi02
    |    |         Procyrnea mansioni Gi02
    |    |--Habronematidae LB02
    |    |--Cystidicolidae LB02
    |    |    |--Ascarophis valentina Ferrer, Aznar et al. 2005 F05
    |    |    `--Cystidicola Fischer 1798 F98
    |    |         `--*C. farionis Fischer 1798 F98
    |    |--Hedrurus L02a [Hedruridae LB02]
    |    |    `--H. androphora L02a
    |    `--Tetrameres J02 [Tetrameridae LB02]
    |         `--T. columbicola J02
    `--Filarioidea LB02
         |  i. s.: Stephanofilaria Gi02
         |         Serratospiculum seurati Gi02
         |         Molinema dessetae [=Dipetalonema dessetae] J02
         |         Microfilaria M64
         |         Acanthocheilonema L02b
         |           |--A. setariosum J02
         |           `--A. viteae [=Dipetalonema viteae] J02
         |         Brugia L02b
         |           |--B. malayi PB07
         |           `--B. pahangi L02b
         |         Dirofilaria M64
         |           |--D. immitis (Leidy 1856) MW69
         |           |--D. repens Gi02
         |           `--D. roemeri v. Linstow 1905 M64
         |         Dipetalonema Gi02
         |           |--D. gracile Gi02
         |           |--D. ozzardi BSG09
         |           |--D. perstans [=Acanthocheilonema perstans] A71
         |           |--D. reconditum DM91
         |           |--D. repens N70
         |           `--D. streptocerca A71
         |--Onchocercidae LB02
         `--Filaria P89b [Filariidae LB02]
              |--F. bhamoensis Parona 1889 P89b
              |--F. flabellata P89b
              |--F. macrophallos Parona 1889 P89b
              |--P. nodulosa P89b
              `--F. obtusocaudata [incl. F. collurionis subcutanea] P89a

Rictularia plagiostoma (Weld 1861) [=Pterygodermatites plagiostoma; incl. Ophiostoma spinosa Willemoes-Suhm 1869] P89b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BSG09] Borkent, A., G. R. Spinelli & W. L. Grogan Jr. 2009. Ceratopogonidae (biting midges, purrujas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 407–435. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[DM91] Dunnet, G. M., & D. K. Mardon. 1991. Siphonaptera (fleas). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 705–716. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F98] Fischer, M. 1798. Sur un nouveau genre de vers intestins. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (13): 98.

[Ge02] Gems, D. 2002. Ageing. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 413–455. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Gi02] Gibbons, L. M. 2002. General organisation. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 31–59. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[H02] Hope, I. A. 2002. Embryology, developmental biology and the genome. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 121–145. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[J02] Justine, J.-L. 2002. Male and female gametes and fertilisation. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 73–119. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02a] Lee, D. L. 2002a. Life cycles. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 61–72. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02b] Lee, D. L. 2002b. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 171–209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[LB02] Ley, P. de, & M. Blaxter. 2002. Systematic position and phylogeny. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 1–30. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[MW69] Moss, W. W., & W. A. Webster. 1969. A numerical taxonomic study of a group of selected strongylates (Nematoda). Systematic Zoology 18 (4): 423–443.

[MM02] Munn, E. A., & P. D. Munn. 2002. Feeding and digestion. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 211–232. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[M64] Mykytowycz, R. 1964. A survey of the endoparasites of the red kangaroo Megaleia rufa (Desmarest). Parasitology 54: 677–693.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[P89a] Parona, C. 1889a. Intorno all’Ascaris halicoris, Owen, ed a qualche altro Nematode raccolti in Assab dal Dott. V. Ragazzi. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 751–764.

[P89b] Parona, C. 1889b. Sopra alcuni elminti di Vertebrati birmani raccolti da Leonardo Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 765–780.

[PB07] Philippe, H., H. Brinkmann, P. Martinez, M. Riutort & J. Baguña. 2007. Acoel flatworms are not Platyhelminthes: evidence from phylogenomics. PloS One 2 (8): e717.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

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