Rictularia sp., from Ranjabar et al. (2017). A: Anterior region and egg (camera lucida drawing); B: Anterior region showing sub ventral comb-like spine (10X); C: Anterior region showing teeth and egg; D: Anterior region showing glandular and muscular esophagus.

Belongs within: Secernentea.
Contains: Onchocercidae.

The Spiruromorpha are a group of parasitic nematodes with life cycles alternating between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Some species, notably among the superfamily Filarioidea, are regarded as significant pathogens of humans and other mammals, causing debilitating illnesses. These include the African eye worm Loa loa which inhabits the subcutaneous tissue of humans and is spread by deer flies of the genus Chrysops.

Spiruromorpha [Spirurida]
    |  i. s.: Loa loa J02
    |         Wuchereria L02a
    |           |--W. bancrofti PB07 [incl. W. bancrofti var. pacifica Ge02]
    |           `--W. malayi MH96
    |--Desportesius [Acuariidae, Acuarioidea] LB02
    |--Camallanus H02 [Camallanidae, Camallanoidea LB02]
    |    `--C. lacustris H02
    |--Aproctoidea LB02
    |    |--Aproctidae LB02
    |    `--Desmidocercidae LB02
    |--Diplotriaenoidea LB02
    |    |--Diplotriaenidae LB02
    |    `--Oswaldofilariidae LB02
    |--Thelazoidea LB02
    |    |--Rhabdochonidae LB02
    |    |--Pneumospiruridae LB02
    |    `--Thelazia F92 [Thelaziidae LB02]
    |         `--T. rhodesii F92
    |--Spiruroidea LB02
    |    |  i. s.: Physocephalus sexalatus Gi02
    |    |--Gongylonematidae LB02
    |    |--Spiruridae LB02
    |    |--Spirocercidae LB02
    |    `--Hartertiidae LB02
    |--Physalopteridae [Physalopteroidea] LB02
    |    |--Abbreviata paradoxa Gi02
    |    `--Physaloptera P89b
    |         |--P. abbreviata P89b
    |         |--P. gemina Gi02
    |         |--P. phrynsoma MM02
    |         |--P. retusa P89b
    |         `--P. varani Parona 1889 P89b
    |--Rictulariidae [Rictularoidea] LB02
    |    |--Pterygodermatites alphi [=Mesopectines alphi] Gi02
    |    `--Rictularia P89b
    |         |--R. bovieri Blanchard 1886 P89b
    |         |--R. cristata Frölich 1802 [=Ophiostomum cristatum] P89b
    |         |--R. dipodomis Tiner 1948 S69
    |         |--R. elvirae Parona 1889 P89b
    |         |--R. macdonaldi (Dobson 1880) [=Pterygodermatites macdonaldi, Ophiostoma macdonaldi] P89b
    |         `--R. plagiostoma (Weld 1861) (see below for synonymy) P89b
    |--Habronematoidea LB02
    |    |  i. s.: Parabronema Gi02
    |    |           |--P. indicum Gi02
    |    |           `--P. skrjabini F92
    |    |         Procyrnea mansioni Gi02
    |    |--Habronematidae LB02
    |    |--Hedrurus L02a [Hedruridae LB02]
    |    |    `--H. androphora L02a
    |    |--Tetrameres J02 [Tetrameridae LB02]
    |    |    `--T. columbicola J02
    |    `--Cystidicolidae LB02
    |         |--Ascarophis valentina Ferrer, Aznar et al. 2005 F05
    |         `--Cystidicola Fischer 1798 F98
    |              `--*C. farionis Fischer 1798 F98
    `--Filarioidea LB02
         |  i. s.: Stephanofilaria Gi02
         |         Serratospiculum seurati Gi02
         |         Molinema dessetae [=Dipetalonema dessetae] J02
         |         Microfilaria M64
         |         Acanthocheilonema L02b
         |           |--A. setariosum J02
         |           `--A. viteae [=Dipetalonema viteae] J02
         |         Brugia L02b
         |           |--B. malayi PB07
         |           |--B. pahangi L02b
         |           `--B. timori O98
         |         Dirofilaria M64
         |           |--D. immitis (Leidy 1856) MW69
         |           |--D. repens Gi02
         |           `--D. roemeri v. Linstow 1905 M64
         |         Dipetalonema DM91
         |           |--D. gracile Gi02
         |           |--D. ozzardi BSG09
         |           |--D. perstans BSG09 [=Acanthocheilonema perstans A71]
         |           |--D. reconditum DM91
         |           |--D. repens N70
         |           `--D. streptocerca A71
         |--Onchocercidae LB02
         `--Filaria P89b [Filariidae LB02]
              |--F. bhamoensis Parona 1889 P89b
              |--F. capsularia [incl. Capsularia halecis] G20
              |--F. flabellata P89b
              |--F. macrophallos Parona 1889 P89b
              |--F. medinensis (Linnaeus 1758) G20, L58 [=Gordius medinensis G20]
              |--P. nodulosa P89b
              `--F. obtusocaudata [incl. F. collurionis subcutanea] P89a

Rictularia plagiostoma (Weld 1861) [=Pterygodermatites plagiostoma; incl. Ophiostoma spinosa Willemoes-Suhm 1869] P89b

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BSG09] Borkent, A., G. R. Spinelli & W. L. Grogan Jr. 2009. Ceratopogonidae (biting midges, purrujas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 407–435. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[DM91] Dunnet, G. M., & D. K. Mardon. 1991. Siphonaptera (fleas). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 705–716. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F98] Fischer, M. 1798. Sur un nouveau genre de vers intestins. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (13): 98.

[Ge02] Gems, D. 2002. Ageing. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 413–455. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Gi02] Gibbons, L. M. 2002. General organisation. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 31–59. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H02] Hope, I. A. 2002. Embryology, developmental biology and the genome. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 121–145. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[J02] Justine, J.-L. 2002. Male and female gametes and fertilisation. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 73–119. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02a] Lee, D. L. 2002a. Life cycles. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 61–72. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02b] Lee, D. L. 2002b. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 171–209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[LB02] Ley, P. de, & M. Blaxter. 2002. Systematic position and phylogeny. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 1–30. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[MW69] Moss, W. W., & W. A. Webster. 1969. A numerical taxonomic study of a group of selected strongylates (Nematoda). Systematic Zoology 18 (4): 423–443.

[MM02] Munn, E. A., & P. D. Munn. 2002. Feeding and digestion. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 211–232. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[M64] Mykytowycz, R. 1964. A survey of the endoparasites of the red kangaroo Megaleia rufa (Desmarest). Parasitology 54: 677–693.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P89a] Parona, C. 1889a. Intorno all’Ascaris halicoris, Owen, ed a qualche altro Nematode raccolti in Assab dal Dott. V. Ragazzi. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 751–764.

[P89b] Parona, C. 1889b. Sopra alcuni elminti di Vertebrati birmani raccolti da Leonardo Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 765–780.

[PB07] Philippe, H., H. Brinkmann, P. Martinez, M. Riutort & J. Baguña. 2007. Acoel flatworms are not Platyhelminthes: evidence from phylogenomics. PloS One 2 (8): e717.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

Last updated: 23 March 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS