Braconidae

Potato moth parasite Orgilus lepidus, from here.


Belongs within: Vespina.
Contains: Urosigalphini, Doryctinae, Braconinae, Rogadinae, Opiinae, Alysiinae, Aphidiinae, Ichneutinae, Cheloninae, Macrocentrinae, Agathidinae, Helconinae, Euphorinae.

The Braconidae are a hyperdiverse group of parasitoid wasps, with females usually ovipositing into larvae of various insects (some species lay in adults or eggs). Basal subfamilies within the Braconidae are ectoparasitic as larvae, with subfamilies from Rogadinae down in the tree below being endoparasitic. A number of basal braconid subfamilies (e.g. Rhyssalinae, Histeromerinae and Doryctinae) include parasites of beetles, and these may be the ancestral hosts for the family. However, the relatively small, little-known braconids of the Rhyssalinae may also parasitise Lepidoptera or Diptera (Achterberg 1993). Histeromerus is a small, rarely collected genus characterised by a very short face, with the head being nearly prognathous (Achterberg 1993). The Apozyginae are another small subfamily, known only from Chile, which retain certain wing veins usually absent in other braconids (2m-cu in the forewing and 2-CU in the hind wing), and have the second and third metasomal sternites fused into a single plate (Achterberg 1993). The cosmopolitan Hormiinae, which are idiobiont ectoparasites of Lepidoptera larvae, have the second and third tergites of the metasoma more or less membranous dorsally, generally less sclerotised than the flanking epipleura (Achterberg 1993).

Characters (from Naumann 1991): Antennae usually long and multisegmented (occasionally reduced), scape small; second recurrent vein absent from fore wing; cell R in hind wing shorter than submarginal vein or absent; T3 and T4 rigidly joined.

<==Braconidae [Anomalidae]
    |--Rhyssalinae A93
    |    |--Oncophanes [Oncophanini] A93
    |    |    `--O. minutus A93
    |    |--Acrisis [Acrisidini] A93
    |    |    `--A. minutissimus A93
    |    `--Rhyssalini A93
    |         |--Dolopsidea indagator A93
    |         `--Rhyssalus A93
    |              |--R. clavator A93
    |              `--R. kerzhneri A93
    `--+--Histeromerus [Histeromerinae] A93
       |    |--H. canadensis A93
       |    `--H. mystacinus A93
       `--+--Doryctinae A93
          `--+--Apozyx [Apozygidae, Apozyginae] A93
             |    `--A. penyai A93
             `--+--+--Hormiinae [Hormiini] A93
                |  |    |--Hormius romani A93
                |  |    `--Pseudohormius turkmenus A93
                |  `--Lysiterminae A93
                |       |--Pentatermini A93
                |       `--Acanthormius [Lysitermini] A93
                |            `--A. sumatrensis A93
                `--+--Exothecinae A93
                   |    |--Rhysipolis [Rhysipolini] A93
                   |    |    |--R. hariolator A93
                   |    |    `--R. meditator A93
                   |    `--Exothecini A93
                   |         |--Xenarcha abnormis A93
                   |         `--Colastes A93
                   |              |--C. braconius A93
                   |              `--C. hariolator MS01
                   `--+--+--Vaepellis [Vaepellinae] A93
                      |  |    `--V. varica A93
                      |  `--+--Braconinae A93
                      |     `--Telengaia [Telengaiinae] A93
                      |          `--T. ventralis A93
                      `--+--+--Rogadinae A93
                         |  `--+--Betylobraconinae A93
                         |     |    |--Mesocentrus crassipes A93
                         |     |    `--Betylobracon waterhousei A93
                         |     `--Mesostoa [Mesostoinae] A93
                         |          |--M. compressa A93
                         |          `--M. kerri A93
                         `--+--+--Gnamptodon [Gnamptodontinae] A93
                            |  |    |--G. molestus A93
                            |  |    `--G. pumilio A93
                            |  `--+--Opiinae A93
                            |     `--Alysiinae A93
                            `--+--Aphidiinae A93
                               `--+--+--+--Ichneutinae A93
                                  |  |  `--Dirrhope [Dirrhopinae] A93
                                  |  |       `--D. rufa A93
                                  |  `--+--Ecnomios [Ecnomiinae] A93
                                  |     |    `--E. papuensis A93
                                  |     `--+--Cheloninae A93
                                  |        `--Adeliinae A93
                                  |             |--Adelius A93
                                  |             `--Paradelius ghesquierei A93
                                  `--+--+--Amicrocentrum [Amicrocentrinae] A93
                                     |  |    `--A. concolor A93
                                     |  `--+--Macrocentrinae A93
                                     |     `--Charmon [Charmontinae] A93
                                     |          `--C. cruentatus A93
                                     `--+--Orgilinae A93
                                        |    |--Mimagathidini A93
                                        |    |    |--Stantonia A93
                                        |    |    `--Bentonia longicornis A93
                                        |    `--Orgilini A93
                                        |         |--Declotila albomarginata A93
                                        |         `--Orgilus A93
                                        |              |--O. lepidus B88
                                        |              |--O. pimpinellae A93
                                        |              `--O. rugosus A93
                                        `--+--+--Agathidinae A93
                                           |  `--Pselaphanus [Pselaphaninae] A93
                                           |       `--P. trogoides A93
                                           `--+--Microtypinae A93
                                              |    |--Microtypus wesmaelii A93
                                              |    `--Neomicrotypus penai A93
                                              `--+--+--Helconinae A93
                                                 |  `--Cenocoeliinae A93
                                                 |       |--Cenocoelius analis A93
                                                 |       `--Capitonius bifasciatus A93
                                                 `--+--+--Meteorideinae A93
                                                    |  |    |--Pronkia [Pronkiini] A93
                                                    |  |    |    `--P. antefurcalis A93
                                                    |  |    `--Meteoridea [Meteorideini] A93
                                                    |  |         `--M. hutsoni A93
                                                    |  `--Blacinae A93
                                                    |       |  i. s.: Eubadizion A71
                                                    |       |--Dyscoletini A93
                                                    |       |    |--Dyscoletes canadensis A93
                                                    |       |    `--Hellenius semiruber A93
                                                    |       `--Blacini A93
                                                    |            |--Blacus fuscitibialis A93
                                                    |            `--Blacometeorus brevicauda A93
                                                    `--+--+--Sigalphinae A93
                                                       |  `--Trachypetinae A93
                                                       |       |--Cercobarcon [Cercobarconinae, Cercobarconini] A93
                                                       |       |    `--C. rieki A93
                                                       |       `--Trachypetus [Trachypetini] A93
                                                       |            `--T. clavatus A93
                                                       `--+--Euphorinae A93
                                                          `--+--Xiphozele [Xiphozelinae] A93
                                                             |    `--X. compressiventris A93
                                                             `--Homolobinae A93
                                                                  |--Westwoodiella [Westwoodiellini] A93
                                                                  |    `--W. bicolor A93
                                                                  `--Homolobus [Homolobini] A93
                                                                       |--H. huddlestoni A93
                                                                       `--H. infumator A93

Braconidae incertae sedis:
  Heterospilus BM76
    |--H. microstigmi BM76
    `--H. prosopidis N57
  Acampsohelconinae A02
    |--Urosigalphini A02
    |--Afrocampsis van Achterberg & Quicke 1990 [Afrocampsini] A02
    |    `--A. griseosetosus A02
    `--Acampsohelcon Tobias 1987 [Acampsohelconini] A02
         `--A. rasnitzini Tobias 1987 A02
  Pambolinae A93
    |--Notiopambolus depressicauda A93
    `--Pambolus biglumis A93
  Pseudobathystomus (Atlantobathystomus Belokobylskij & Koponen 2004) F05
    `--P. (*A.) macaronesius Belokobylskij & Koponen 2004 F05
  Microdus tumidulus MS01
  Phaenocarpa jaculans MS01
  Coelinius MS01
    |--C. gracilis MS01
    `--C. niger MS01
  Chaenon anceps MS01
  Wroughtonia ligator HR11
  Diaeretus essigellae PK17
  Rhetinorhyssalus morticinus PK17

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A93] Achterberg, C. van. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen 283: 1–189.

[A02] Achterberg, C. van. 2002. Revision of the genus Canalicephalus Gibson and the recognition of the Acampsohelconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as extant. Zoologische Mededelingen 76 (20): 347–370.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N57] Nicholson, A. J. 1957. The self-adjustment of populations to change. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 22: 153–172.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

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