Dictyoptera

Reconstruction of Manoblatta bertrandi, from Vršanský et al. (2002).


Belongs within: Perlidea.
Contains: Blattoidea.

The Dictyoptera includes the cockroaches, mantids, termites and related fossil taxa, with the earliest representatives known from the Middle Carboniferous (Vršanský et al. 2002). Though commonly referred to as 'cockroaches', stem-group dictyopterans differed from modern taxa in retaining an elongate ovipositor, rather than producing eggs in cases (oothecae) like modern cockroaches or mantids.

Synapomorphies (from Vršanský et al. 2002; Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pronotum large, shield-like, with paranota circular, much enlarged and concealing head at rest; head opistognathous; forewing tegminous, R and RS weakly individualised, anal area (clavus) wide, lanceolate, with arched, groove-like claval suture, anal veins gently curved, weakly branching if at all; cercus short.

<==Dictyoptera [Archimylacroidea, Blattida, Blattidea, Blattodea, Mylacridoidea, Phyloblattoidea]
    |--+--Subioblattidae VVR02
    |  `--Archimylacrididae VVR02
    |       |--Archaeotiphites captiosus Z02
    |       |--Manoblatta bertrandi GE05
    |       |--Uraloblatta insignis VVR02
    |       `--Archymylacris BN02
    `--+--Dictyomylacris [Archoblattinidae, Mylacrididae] VVR02
       |    `--D. insignis VVR02
       |--+--Necymylacrididae VVR02
       |  `--+--Poroblattinidae [Diechnoblattinidae] VVR02
       |     `--Sysciophlebia RDS03 [Compsoblattinidae, Spiloblattinidae VVR02]
       |          `--S. ilfeldensis RDS03
       `--+--Phylloblatta [Phylloblattidae] GE05
          |    |--P. aliena Z02
          |    `--P. gallica GE05
          `--+--Blattoidea GE05
             `--Caloblattinoidea VLR09
                  |--Latiblattidae V10
                  |--Fuzia Vršanský, Liang & Ren 2009 [Fuziidae] VLR09
                  |    `--*F. dadao Vršanský, Liang & Ren 2009 VLR09
                  `--Caloblattinidae GE05
                       |--Triassoblatta VVR02
                       `--Aktassoblatta pullata VVR02

Dictyoptera incertae sedis:
  Sinogramma reticularis R02
  Parellipsidion pachycercum WPT01
  Ignaroblatta sibirica Z02
  Celatoblatta WFS04
  Celerioblattina minor WFS04
  Phyllodromia germanica D51
  Leucophaea surinamensis K-P83
  Karataublatta longicaudata GE05
  Pycnoscelus surinamensis R96
  Byrsotria fumigata LY07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618-1669.

[LY07] Liu, J., X. Yang, Y. Zhang & Z. Liu. 2007. Effects of exogenous juvenile hormone III on the ixodid tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress, pp. 209-213. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Cohors Cimiciformes Laicharting, 1781. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 104-115. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[RDS03] Rössler, R., J. A. Dunlop & J. W. Schneider. 2003. A redescription of some poorly known Rotliegend arachnids from the Lower Permian (Asselian) of the Ilfeld and Thuringian Forest Basins, Germany. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 77 (2): 417-427.

[V10] Vršanský, P. 2010. Cockroach as the earliest eusocial animal. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 84 (4): 793-808.

[VLR09] Vršanský, P., J.-H. Liang & D. Ren. 2009. Advanced morphology and behaviour of extinct earwig-like cockroaches (Blattida: Fuziidae fam. nov.). Geologica Carpathica 60 (6): 449-462.

[VVR02] Vršanský, P., V. N. Vishniakova & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Blattida Latreille, 1810. The cockroaches (=Blattodea Brunner von Wattenvill, 1882). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 263-270. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WPT01] Wharton, D. A., R. Poulin & C. L. Tyrell. 2001. Parasites of anostostomatid insects. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 259-267. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61-72.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Pattern of insect burial and conservation. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 17-63. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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