Dictyoptera

Reconstruction of Manoblatta bertrandi, from Vršanský et al. (2002).


Belongs within: Polyneoptera.
Contains: Mantodea, Isoptera, Blattaria.

The Dictyoptera includes the cockroaches, mantids, termites and related fossil taxa, with the earliest representatives known from the Middle Carboniferous (Vršanský et al. 2002). Though commonly referred to as 'cockroaches', stem-group dictyopterans differed from modern taxa in retaining an elongate ovipositor, rather than producing eggs in cases (oothecae) like modern cockroaches or mantids. Notable examples of basal dictyopterans include the Raphidiomimidae, a Late Mesozoic family with a narrow head and pronotum, elongate maxillary palps, and raptorial fore legs with short ventral spines on the femur (Grimaldi & Ross 2004).

Synapomorphies (from Vršanský et al. 2002; Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pronotum large, shield-like, with paranota circular, much enlarged and concealing head at rest; head opistognathous; forewing tegminous, R and RS weakly individualised, anal area (clavus) wide, lanceolate, with arched, groove-like claval suture, anal veins gently curved, weakly branching if at all; cercus short.

Dictyoptera [Archimylacroidea, Blattida, Blattidea, Blattodea, Mylacridoidea, Phyloblattoidea, Polyphagoidea]
    |--+--Subioblatta RJ93 [Subioblattidae VVR02]
    |  |    `--S. karatavica RJ93
    |  `--Archimylacrididae VVR02
    |       |--Archaeotiphites captiosus Z02
    |       |--Manoblatta bertrandi GE05
    |       |--Uraloblatta insignis VVR02
    |       |--Archimylacris lerichei R70
    |       `--Miroblatta costalis Laurentiaux-Vieira & Laurentiaux 1987 RJ93
    `--+--Dictyomylacris Brogniart 1893 V02 [Archoblattinidae, Mylacrididae VVR02]
       |    `--D. insignis VVR02
       |--+--Necymylacris RJ93 [Necymylacrididae VVR02]
       |  |    `--N. handlirschi RJ93
       |  `--+--Poroblatta RJ93 [Diechnoblattinidae, Poroblattinidae VVR02]
       |     |    `--P. duffienxi RJ93
       |     `--Spiloblattinidae [Compsoblattinidae] VVR02
       |          |--Sysciophlebia ilfeldensis RDS03
       |          `--Kinklidoblatta morini RJ93
       `--+--Phyloblatta Handlirsch 1906 GE05, V02 [Phylloblattidae]
          |    |--P. aliena Z02
          |    `--P. gallica GE05
          `--+--+--+--Blattulidae V02
             |  |  |    |--Elisama Giebel 1856 V02
             |  |  |    |    |--E. americana Vršanský 2002 V02
             |  |  |    |    |--E. tsaganica Vršanský 1999 V02
             |  |  |    |    `--E. vidlickai Vršanský 2004 V10
             |  |  |    |--Tarakanula shcherbakovi VLR09
             |  |  |    `--Mesoblattula sincera Lin 1986 RJ93
             |  |  |--Liberiblattinidae V10
             |  |  |    |  i. s.: Brachyblatta Vršanský 2002 V02
             |  |  |    |--+--Liberiblattina Vršanský 2002 V02
             |  |  |    |  |    `--*L. ihringovae Vršanský 2002 V02
             |  |  |    |  `--Gurvanoblatta Vishniakova 1986 V02
             |  |  |    |       `--G. mongolica Vishniakova 1986 V02
             |  |  |    `--Kazachiblattina Vršanský 2002 V02
             |  |  |         `--K. asiatica (Vishniakova 1968) V02
             |  |  |--+--Eadiidae V10
             |  |  |  |--Mantodea V10
             |  |  |  `--Raphidiomimidae V02
             |  |  |       |--Raphidiomima Vishniakova 1973 GR04
             |  |  |       |    |--R. chimaera Vishniakova 1973 V02
             |  |  |       |    `--R. cognata Vishniakova 1973 V02
             |  |  |       |--Cretacechorista qilianshanensis Hong et al. 1989 RJ93
             |  |  |       |--Rhipidoblattina katavica GE05
             |  |  |       |--Raphidiomimula Grimaldi & Ross 2004 GR04
             |  |  |       |    `--*R. burmitica Grimaldi & Ross 2004 GR04
             |  |  |       `--Cameloblatta variegata GR04
             |  |  |--Skok [Skokidae] V10
             |  |  |    `--S. svaba Vršanský 2007 BP10
             |  |  `--Isoptera V10
             |  `--Blattaria GE05
             `--Caloblattinoidea V10
                  |--Fuzia Vršanský, Liang & Ren 2009 VLR09 [Fuziidae V10]
                  |    `--*F. dadao Vršanský, Liang & Ren 2009 VLR09
                  |--Latiblatta Hong 2002 [Latiblattidae V10]
                  |    |--*L. spinosa Hong 2002 H02
                  |    `--L. orientalis Hong 2002 H02
                  `--Caloblattinidae GE05
                       |--Triassoblatta VVR02
                       |--Aktassoblatta Vishniakova 1971 VVR02, V02
                       |    |--A. fusca Vishniakova 1971 V02
                       |    `--A. pullata Vishniakova 1971 V02
                       `--Caloblattina mathildae (Geinitz 1883) V02

Dictyoptera incertae sedis:
  Sinogramma reticularis R02
  Parellipsidion pachycercum WPT01
  Ignaroblatta sibirica Z02
  Celerioblattina minor WFS04
  Leucophaea K-P83
    |--L. maderae B96
    `--L. surinamensis K-P83
  Karataublatta longicaudata GE05
  Byrsotria fumigata LY07
  Stenomylacris Handlirsch 1906 V02
  Pararchimylacris Laurentiaux 1967 V02
  Sogdoblatta Martynov 1937 V02
  Nannoblattina Scudder 1886 V02
  Rithma Giebel 1856 V02
  Praeblattella Vršanský 2002 V02
  Alienopterus Bai, Beutel et al. 2016 [Alienoptera, Alienopteridae] BB16
    `--*A. brachyelytrus Bai, Beutel et al. 2016 BB16
  Ponopterix axelrodi BB16, GE05
  Jantaropterix newjersey BB16
  Manipulator modificaputis BB16
  Compsoblatta [Compsoblattidae] RJ93
    `--C. frankei RJ93
  Hebeitermes weichangensis [=Hopeitermes weichangensis] RJ93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB16] Bai, M., R. G. Beutel, K.-D. Klass, W. Zhang, X. Yang & B. Wipfler. 2016. Alienoptera—a new insect order in the roach-mantodean twilight zone. Gondwana Research 39: 317–326.

[BP10] Bohn, H., M. Picker, K.-D. Klass & J. Colville. 2010. A jumping cockroach from South Africa, Saltoblattella montistabularis, gen. nov., spec. nov. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 68 (1): 53–69.

[B96] Buczek, A. 1996. Regeneration of legs in Argas (Argas) reflexus (Fabricius) (Argasidae). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 709–711. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[GR04] Grimaldi, D. A., & A. J. Ross. 2004. Raphidiomimula, an enigmatic new cockroach in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Burma) (Insecta: Blattodea: Raphidiomimidae). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2: 101–104.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618–1669.

[LY07] Liu, J., X. Yang, Y. Zhang & Z. Liu. 2007. Effects of exogenous juvenile hormone III on the ixodid tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 209–213. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Cohors Cimiciformes Laicharting, 1781. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 104–115. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Fossil history. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 168–186. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[RDS03] Rössler, R., J. A. Dunlop & J. W. Schneider. 2003. A redescription of some poorly known Rotliegend arachnids from the Lower Permian (Asselian) of the Ilfeld and Thuringian Forest Basins, Germany. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 77 (2): 417–427.

[V02] Vršanský, P. 2002. Origin and the early evolution of mantises. AMBA Projekty 6 (1): 1–16.

[V10] Vršanský, P. 2010. Cockroach as the earliest eusocial animal. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 84 (4): 793–808.

[VLR09] Vršanský, P., J.-H. Liang & D. Ren. 2009. Advanced morphology and behaviour of extinct earwig-like cockroaches (Blattida: Fuziidae fam. nov.). Geologica Carpathica 60 (6): 449–462.

[VVR02] Vršanský, P., V. N. Vishniakova & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Blattida Latreille, 1810. The cockroaches (=Blattodea Brunner von Wattenvill, 1882). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 263–270. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WPT01] Wharton, D. A., R. Poulin & C. L. Tyrell. 2001. Parasites of anostostomatid insects. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 259–267. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Pattern of insect burial and conservation. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 17–63. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 6 February 2019.

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