Holophasmatodea

Reconstruction of Triassophasma, from Gorochov & Rasnitsyn (2002).


Belongs within: Orthopteroidea.
Contains: Phasmatodea.

The clade Holophasmatodea includes the modern phasmids and their fossil relatives. Fossils have been assigned to this lineage going back to the Permian or Triassic, though the status of the earliest examples as stem-phasmids has been subject to debate.

Synapomorphies (from Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002): Body elongate, stick-like; meso- and metathoraces much longer than prothorax; fore wing with veins subparallel.

<==Holophasmatodea [Aeroplanoidea, Phasmatida, Phasmatoptera, Phasmodea]
    |  i. s.: Orephasma BN02
    |--+--Xiphopterum BN02 [Xiphopteridae GE05, Xiphopteroidea]
    |  |    `--X. curvatum Sharov 1968 BN02
    |  `--Prochresmodoidea GR02
    |       |--Permophasma [Permophasmatidae] GR02
    |       `--Prochresmodidae GE05
    |            |--Triassophasma GR02
    |            `--Prochresmoda longipoda GR02
    `--+--Cretophasmatidae [Cretophasmatinae] GE05
       `--+--Durnoraria GE05
          |--Aeroplanidae GE05
          |    |--Paraplana affinis GR02
          |    `--Aeroplana mirabilis Tillyard 1918 BN02
          `--+--Chresmodella [Chresmodellinae] GE05
             |--Baissophasma pilosa GE05, GR02
             `--+--Blattidium GR02 [Aerophasmatidae GE05]
                `--+--+--Phasmatodea GE05
                   |  `--Coniphasma GE05
                   `--Susumaniidae [Hagiphasmatidae, Susumanioidea] GE05
                        |  i. s.: Electrobaculum GR02
                        |         Cretophasmomima baissiensis GR02
                        |--Susumaniinae GR02
                        `--Phasmomimoides [Phasmomimoidinae] GR02
                             `--P. minutus GR02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BN02] B├ęthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 293-303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS