Male European earwig Forficula auricularia, photographed by Eugene Zelenko.

Belongs within: Neodermaptera.

The Eudermaptera are a clade of earwigs characterised by the reduction of the male genitalia to a single penal lobe and single virga, and having the expanded regions of the anal and intercalary veins distinctly separated (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). In members of the families Chelisochidae and Forficulidae, the second segment of the tarsi is ventrally produced below the third but members of the Labioidea retain a simple, subcylindrical second tarsal segment. Forficulidae have the second tarsal segment expanded laterally as well as produced (Rentz & Kevan 1991). The Labioidea are now regarded as including the genus Arixenia, specialised cave-dwellers found in bat-roosts in southeast Asia that feed on guano and (in the case of A. esau) perhaps facultatively on the bats themselves (Askew 1971).

    |  i. s.: Chelisoficula Nel, Waller et al. 2003 NW03
    |           `--*C. caussaneli Nel, Waller et al. 2003 NW03
    |--Labioidea S02
    |    |--Carcinophoridae [Carcinophorinae] RD77
    |    |--Arixenia RK91 [Arixeniidae GE05, Arixeniina]
    |    |    |--A. esau RK91
    |    |    `--A. jacobsoni A71
    |    |--Spongiphoridae GE05
    |    |    |  i. s.: Sinolabia longyouensis S02
    |    |    |         Auchenomus forcipatus TW05
    |    |    |--Spongiphorinae RK91
    |    |    |    |--Apovostox RK91
    |    |    |    `--Marava arachidis RK91
    |    |    `--Nesogaster [Nesogastrinae] RK91
    |    |         |--N. erichsoni G74
    |    |         |--N. halli RK91
    |    |         `--N. ruficeps RK91
    |    `--Labiidae S02
    |         |  i. s.: Cretolabia S02
    |         |         Caririlabia S02
    |         |         Spongovostox NW03
    |         |           |--S. cornutus Brindle 1973 NW03
    |         |           `--S. doddi ZS10
    |         |         Prolabia arachidis (Yersin 1860) [=Forficula arachidis, Labia arachidis] H40
    |         |--Nesolabia [Geracinae] NW03
    |         |    `--N. longicollis Hincks 1957 NW03
    |         `--Labiinae RK91
    |              |--Chaetospania brunneri RK91
    |              `--Labia GE05
    |                   |--L. canaca Burr 1903 B14
    |                   |--L. curvicaudata GE05
    |                   `--L. minor B01
    `--+--Chelisochidae [Chelisochinae] NW03
       |    |--Chelisochella superba (Dorhn 1865) NW03
       |    |--Schizoproreus delicatulus (Burr 1911) NW03
       |    |--Adiathetus glaucopterus (Bormans 1888) NW03
       |    |--Genitalata mahajani Kapoor 1974 NW03
       |    |--Proreus simulans (Stål 1860) NW03
       |    |--Lamprophorella RK91
       |    |--Chelisoches Scudder 1876 NW03
       |    |    `--C. morio TW05
       |    `--Hamaxas NW03
       |         |--H. bidentatus Ramamurthi 1965 NW03
       |         `--H. singhi Kapoor 1966 NW03
       `--Forficulidae NW03
            |  i. s.: Anechura bipunctata B01
            |         Elaunon bipartitus RK91
            |         Hadanechura Zhang et al. 1994 NW03
            |           `--*H. sisypha Zhang et al. 1994 NW03
            |         Apanechura Zhang 1989 NW03
            |           |--A. asceta Zhang 1989 NW03
            |           `--A. ooides Zhang 1989 NW03
            |--Opisthocosmiinae H40
            |    |--Eparchus H40
            |    |    |--E. biroi TW05
            |    |    `--E. insignis (Haan 1842) [=Forficula insignis] H40
            |    `--Timomenus H40
            |         |--T. pieli Hincks 1940 H40
            |         |--T. shelfordi (Burr 1904) [=Opisthocosmia shelfordi] H40
            |         `--T. unidentatus Borelli 1915 H40
            `--Forficula Linnaeus 1758 [Forficulinae] NW03
                 |--F. auricularia Linnaeus 1758 L58
                 |--F. baltica P92
                 |--F. decipiens W07
                 |--F. klebsi P92
                 |--F. minor Linnaeus 1758 L58
                 |--F. paleocaenica Willmann 1990 NW03
                 |--F. praecursor P92
                 |--F. pristina P92
                 `--F. tomis S02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[B14] Burr, M. 1914. Les Dermaptères de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 315–324, pl. 9. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[G74] Giles, E. T. 1974. Dermaptera (earwigs). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 42–43.Melbourne University Press.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H40] Hincks, W. D. 1940. Dermaptera (earwigs) from Hainan Island. Notes d'Entomologie Chinoise 8 (2): 29–40.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[NW03] Nel, A., A. Waller, V. Albouy, J.-J. Menier & G. de Ploëg. 2003. New fossil earwigs from the lowermost Eocene amber of Paris Basin (France) (Insecta, Dermaptera, family incertae sedis). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 119–129.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RK91] Rentz, D. C. F., & D. K. McE. Kevan. 1991. Dermaptera (earwigs). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 360–368. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S02] Shcherbakov, D. E. 2002. Order Forficulida Latreille, 1810. The earwigs and protelytropterans (=Dermaptera DeGeer, 1773+Protelytroptera Tillyard, 1931). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 288–291. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[W07] Wirth, S. 2007. Phylogeny and character transformations of the Histiostomatidae. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 607–615. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 18 May 2022.

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