Hindwing of Protoperla westwoodi, from Béthoux et al. (2005).

Belongs within: Xenonomia.

The Protoperlina are a group of insects recorded from the late Carboniferous to the early Cretaceous. The monophyly of the group is uncertain; Storozhenko (2002) defined it on the basis of characters of the forewing, but the type species Protoperla westwoodi is represented by a hindwing only (Béthoux et al. 2005). At least some Protoperlina were probably detritivores.

Characters (from Storozhenko 2002): Fore wing CuA and its branches situated in posterior wing half; proximal branch of fore wing CuA forming series of marginal veinlets across posterior wing margin.

    |  i. s.: Tshekardomina Novokshonov & Aristov 2002 [Tshekardominidae] NA02
    |           `--*T. maculosa Novokshonov & Aristov 2002 NA02
    |         Stenoneurites Handlirsch 1906 S02, BN05 [Stenoneuritidae BN05]
    |           `--*S. maximi (Brongniart 1893) [=Stenoneura maximi] BN05
    |--Protoperlidae S02
    |    |--Protoblattiniella minutissima S02
    |    |--Palaeocixius Brongniart 1893 S02, BN05 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--*P. antiquus Brongniart 1893 (see below for synonymy) BN05
    |    `--Protoperla Brongniart 1893 BN05
    |         |--*P. westwoodi Brongniart 1893 BN05
    |         `--P. boltoni Lameere 1917 BN05
    `--+--+--Demopteridae S02
       |  |--Protembia BN05 [Protembiaria, Protembiidae S02]
       |  |    `--P. permiana Tillyard 1937 BN05
       |  |--+--Jabloniidae S02
       |  |  `--Camptoneuritidae S02
       |  `--+--Chelopteridae S02
       |     |--Aliculidae S02
       |     `--Phenopterum Carpenter 1950 BN05 [Phenopteridae S02]
       `--+--+--Sylvabestiidae S02
          |  `--Sojanoraphidia P02 [Sojanoraphidiidae S02]
          `--+--+--Sylvardembiidae S02
             |  `--Tillyardembia Zalessky 1937 R00 [Tillyardembiidae S02]
             |       `--T. antennaeplana GE05
             `--+--Mesojabloniidae S02
                `--+--Oecanthoperlidae S02
                   `--+--Permembia GE05 [Permembiidae S02]
                      `--Sheimia [Sheimiidae, Sheimiodea] S02
                           `--S. sojanensis Martynova 1958 R00

Palaeocixius Brongniart 1893 S02, BN05 [incl. Fabrecia Meunier 1911 BN05, Protocixius Brongniart 1885 (n. n.) BN05]

*Palaeocixius antiquus Brongniart 1893 [=Protocixius antiquus Bongniart 1885 (n. n.); incl. Palaeocixius fayoli Storozhenko 1998, Protoblattina giardi Meunier 1921, Fabrecia minuta Meunier 1911, Protoperla (Fabrecia) minuta, F. pygmae Meunier 1911, Palaeocixius pygmaeus, Protoperla (Fabrecia) pygmae] BN05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BN05] Béthoux, O., A. Nel, J. Lapeyrie & G. Gand. 2005. New data on Paleozoic grylloblattid insects (Neoptera). Journal of Paleontology 79 (1): 125-138.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[NA02] Novokshonov, V. G., & D. S. Aristov. 2002. New and little-known Permian insects (Insecta: Grylloblattida; Orthoptera) from the Chekarda Locality, central Ural Mountains. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2002 (6): 73-77 (transl. Paleontological Journal 36 (6): 644-649).

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 176-189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1-53, 1-36.

[S02] Storozhenko, S. Yu. 2002. Order Grylloblattida Walker, 1914 (=Notoptera Crampton, 1915, =Grylloblattodea Brues et Melander, 1932, +Protorthoptera Handlirsch, 1906, =Paraplecoptera Martynov, 1925, +Protoperlaria Tillyard, 1928). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 278-281. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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