Collared peccary Dicotyles tajacu, photographed by Colin Burnett.

Belongs within: Artiodactyla.
Contains: Listriodontinae, Suinae, Sanitheriinae, Hyotherium.

The Suinamorpha unites the pigs (Suidae) and the peccaries (Tayassuidae). Members of this clade have an elongate, mobile, cartilaginous snout with a flattened terminal area around the nostrils (Cooke & Wilkinson 1978). In the modern fauna, the Suidae are native to the Old World while the Tayassuidae are restricted to the New World, but the fossil record indicates that Tayassuidae were previously present in the Old World from the Oligocene to Pliocene. Modern peccaries are generally sociable animals, though the chacoan peccary Catagonus wagneri forms only small groups of up to ten individuals. The white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari, in contrast, can form herds of over 100 individuals.

Suinamorpha [Doliochoerinae, Suina, Suoidea]
    |  i. s.: Kenyasus namaquensis P02
    |         Eocenchoerus MJ11
    |--Suidae CW78
    |    |  i. s.: Nguruwe kijivium MJ11, P02
    |    |--Xenohyus venitor BLB05
    |    `--+--+--Listriodontinae CW78
    |       |  `--Suinae CW78
    |       `--+--Sanitheriinae CW78
    |          |--Hyotheriinae CW78
    |          |    |--Hyotherium CW78
    |          |    |--Chleuastochoerus stehlini CW78, DW04
    |          |    |--Propalaeochoerus Stehlin 1899 CW78
    |          |    |    `--*P. leptodon Stehlin 1899 CW78
    |          |    `--Palaeochoerus Pomel 1846 BLB05, CW78
    |          `--Tetraconodontinae CW78
    |               |--Tetraconodon Falconer 1868 CW78
    |               |--Conohyus Pilgrim 1926 CW78
    |               |--Sivachoerus Pilgrim 1926 CW78
    |               `--Nyanzachoerus Leakey 1958 CW78
    |                    |  i. s.: ‘Sivachoerus’ giganteus Tobien 1936 CW78
    |                    |--N. devauxi (Arambourg 1968) [=Propotamochoerus devauxi] CW78
    |                    `--+--+--N. syrticus (Leonardi 1952) (n. d.) [=Sivachoerus syrticus] CW78
    |                       |  `--N. tulotos Cooke & Ewer 1972 CW78
    |                       `--+--+--*N. kanamensis Leakey 1958 CW78
    |                          |  `--N. pattersoni Cooke & Ewer 1972 CW78
    |                          `--+--N. jaegeri Coppens 1971 [incl. N. plicatus Cooke & Ewer 1972] CW78
    |                             `--Notochoerus Broom 1925 [incl. Gerontochoerus Leakey 1943] CW78
    |                                  |--N. euilus (Hopwood 1926) [=Hylochoerus euilus, Gerontochoerus euilus] CW78
    |                                  `--+--*N. capensis Broom 1925 CW78
    |                                     `--N. scotti (Leakey 1943) [=*Gerontochoerus scotti] CW78
    `--Tayassuidae [Dicotylidae] JJ84
         |  i. s.: Platygonus condoni W69
         |         Desmathyus W69
         |         Hesperhys W69
         |         Prosthennops niobrarensis W69
         |         Mylohyus W69
         |           |--M. fossilis [=Dicotyles fossilis; incl. D. lenis] W69
         |           `--M. pennsylvanicus GD61
         |         Pecarichoerus CW78
         |           |--P. africanus Hendey 1976 CW78
         |           `--P. orientalis CW78
         |         Dyseohyus Stock 1937 W69
         |           |--*D. fricki Stock 1937 W69
         |           `--D. stirtoni Woodburne 1969 W69
         |--Cynorca Cope 1867 MJ11, W69
         |    |--*C. proterva Cope 1867 [=Squalodon protervus] W69
         |    |--C. hesperia (Marsh 1871) [=Dicotyles hesperius, Chaenohyus hesperius, Tayassu hesperius] W69
         |    |--C. occidentale Woodburne 1969 W69
         |    `--C. sociale (Marsh 1875) (see below for synonymy) W69
         |--Doliochoerus quercyi BLB05
         `--+--Catagonus Ameghino 1904 BLB05, N10
            |    `--C. wagneri (Rusconi 1930) [=Platygonus carlesi wagneri] N10
            `--+--Tayassu Fischer 1814 N10
               |    `--T. pecari Link 1795 W69
               |        |--T. p. pecari G69
               |        `--T. p. ringens G69
               `--Dicotyles Cuvier 1817 N10 [=Pecari Reichenbach 1835 BLB05, N10]
                    |--D. labiatus C77
                    |--D. tajacu (Linnaeus 1758) W69 (see below for synonymy)
                    |    |--D. t. tajacu MB86
                    |    |--‘Tayassu tajacu’ angulatus MB86
                    |    |--‘Tayassu tajacu’ crassus G69
                    |    |--‘Tayassu tajacu’ humeralis G69
                    |    |--‘Tayassu tajacu’ nelsoni G69
                    |    `--‘Tayassu tajacu’ sonoriensis (Mearns 1897) MB86
                    `--D. traunmulleri W69

Inorganic: Tayassu albirostris minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87
           Tayassu tayacu minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Cynorca sociale (Marsh 1875) [=Thinohyus socialis, T. (Bothrolabis) socialis, Palaeochoerus socialis, Perchoerus socialis] W69

Dicotyles tajacu (Linnaeus 1758) W69 [=Sus tajacu W69, Pecari tajacu N10, Tayassu tajacu N10; incl. D. torquatus Cuvier 1817 W69]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BLB05] Boisserie, J.-R., F. Lihoreau & M. Brunet. 2005. The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102 (5): 1537–1541.

[CW78] Cooke, H. B. S., & A. F. Wilkinson. 1978. Suidae and Tayassuidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 435–482. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8–14.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[GD61] Guilday, J. E. & J. K. Doutt. 1961. The collared lemming (Dicrostonyx) from the Pennsylvania Pleistocene. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 249–250.

[JJ84] Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In: Macdonald, D., (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals pp. 28–39. Torstar Books: New York.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521–524.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[P02] Pickford, M. 2002. Early Miocene grassland ecosystem at Bukwa, Mount Elgon, Uganda. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 213–219.

[W69] Woodburne, M. O. 1969. Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of Cynorca and Dyseohyus (Tayassuidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (2): 271–356.

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