Reconstruction of Coniophis, copyright N. Tamura.

Belongs within: Lepidosauria.
Contains: Anguidae, Varanidae, Mosasauridae, Palaeophiidae, Serpentes.

The Anguimorpha are a clade of lizards including the glass lizards, monitors, snakes and related taxa. Supporting characters of this clade include the ability to retract the foretongue (Rieppel 1988). Members of this clade include the beaded lizards Heloderma, strikingly coloured venomous lizards from southern North America.

Synapomorphies (from Rieppel 1988): Foretongue retractible within hindtongue at a transverse zone of invagination; inferior labial glands differentiated; type 2 fundic glands present; genital tubercle lateral or ventral to sinus genitalis.

<==Anguimorpha [Anguinoidea, Anguinomorpha, Anguoidea, Varanoidea] L05
    |--Xenosauridae LBG12b
    |    |--Xenosaurus grandis MH11
    |    |--Exostinus lancensis LBG12b
    |    `--Restes LBG12b
    `--+--+--Anguidae LBG12b
       |  `--Heloderma [Helodermatidae] MH11
       |       |--H. horridum DD61
       |       `--H. suspectum MH11
       `--+--+--Shinisaurus [Shinisauridae] MH11
          |  |    `--S. crocodilurus MH11
          |  `--+--+--+--Varanidae MH11
          |     |  |  `--Lanthanotus [Lanthanotidae] MH11
          |     |  |       `--L. borneensis MH11
          |     |  `--+--Mosasauridae MH11
          |     |     `--Opetiosaurus Kornbuber 1901 D07 [Aigialosauridae L05]
          |     |          `--O. bucchichi D07
          |     `--Platynota LBG12b
          |          |  i. s.: Labrodioctes LBG12b
          |          |         Provaranosaurus acutus LBG12b
          |          |         Saniwa feisti MH11
          |          |         Primaderma Nydam 2000 AS09, D07
          |          |           `--P. nessovi D07
          |          |--Litakis gilmorei LBG12b
          |          |--Colpodontosaurus cracens LBG12b
          |          `--+--Cemeterius Longrich, Bhullar & Gauthier 2012 LBG12b
          |             |    `--*C. monstrosus Longrich, Bhullar & Gauthier 2012 LBG12b
          |             `--+--Palaeosaniwa canadensis LBG12b, LBG12a
          |                |--Paraderma bogerti LBG12b
          |                `--Parasaniwa LBG12b [Necrosauridae G88]
          |                     `--P. wyomingensis LBG12b
          `--+--Dolichosauridae L05
             |    |--Dolichosaurus Owen 1850 D07
             |    |    `--D. longicoliis D07
             |    `--Pontosaurus Kramberger 1892 D07
             |         `--P. lesinensis D07
             `--Ophidia LBG12b
                  |  i. s.: Rottophis atavus (von Meyer 1860) S05
                  |         Palaeophiidae RB03
                  |         ‘Nessovophis’ zhylga Averianov 1997 [Nigerophiidae] RB03
                  |         Pouitella Rage 1988 RB03
                  |         Helagras prisciformis LBG12b
                  |         Cheilophis LBG12b
                  |         Sanjuanophis LBG12b
                  |         Lapparentophis defrennei AS09
                  |--+--Serpentes MH11
                  |  `--Najash Apesteguía & Zaher 2006 LBG12a, AZ06
                  |       `--*N. rionegrina Apesteguía & Zaher 2006 AZ06
                  `--Coniophis Marsh 1892 [Coniophidae] LBG12a
                       |--C. carinatus McGrew et al. 1959 LBG12a
                       |--C. cosgriffi Armstrong-Ziegler 1978 LBG12a
                       |--C. dabiebus Rage & Werner 1999 LBG12a
                       |--C. platycarinatus McGrew et al. 1959 LBG12a
                       `--C. precedens Marsh 1892 LBG12a

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS09] Alfaro, M. E., F. Santini, C. Brock, H. Alamillo, A. Dornburg, D. L. Rabosky, G. Carnevale & L. J. Harmon. 2009. Nine exceptional radiations plus high turnover explain species diversity in jawed vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (32): 13410–13414.

[AZ06] Apesteguía, S. & H. Zaher. 2006. A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum. Nature 440: 1037–1040.

[DD61] Davis, W. B., & J. R. Dixon. 1961. Reptiles (exclusive of snakes) of the Chilpancingo Region, Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 37–56.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[L05] Lee, M. S. Y. 2005. Squamate phylogeny, taxon sampling, and data congruence. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 5: 25–45.

[LBG12a] Longrich, N. R., B.-A. S. Bhullar & J. A. Gauthier. 2012. A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America. Nature 488: 205–208.

[LBG12b] Longrich, N. R., B.-A. S. Bhullar & J. A. Gauthier. 2012b. Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (52): 21396–21401.

[MH11] Müller, J., C. A. Hipsley, J. J. Head, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, M. Wuttke & R. R. Reisz. 2011. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins. Nature 473: 364–367.

[RB03] Rage, J.-C., S. Bajpai, J. G. M. Thewissen & B. N. Tiwari. 2003. Early Eocene snakes from Kutch, western India, with a review of the Palaeophiidae. Geodiversitas 25 (4): 695–716.

Rieppel, O. 1988. The classification of the Squamata. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds (M. J. Benton, ed.) pp. 261-293. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[S05] Scanlon, J. D. 2005. Cranial morphology of the Plio-Pleistocene giant madtsoiid snake Wonambi naracoortensis. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50: 139–180.

Last updated: 9 August 2017.

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