Xenonomia

Austrophasma caledonensis, photographed by Simon van Noort.


Belongs within: Perlidea.
Contains: Protoperlina.

The Xenonomia is a clade of insects supported by molecular analysis (Terry & Whiting 2005), uniting two relictual groups of modern wingless, carnivorous insects. The Grylloblattodea (ice crawlers) are found in cool environments in north-western North America and north-eastern Asia, and are characterised by the presence of a spina on the metathoracic sternum, and an eversible median sac on the first abdominal sternum. The Mantophasmatodea (rock crawlers or gladiators) are restricted in the modern fauna to southern Africa, though representatives are also known from Baltic amber; they possess a hypognathous head, and an enlarged pretarsal arolium with a fringe of long setae. Both groups also lack ocelli (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). A number of winged fossil insects have also been associated with the Grylloblattodea, though it is uncertain whether these taxa form a monophyletic group. Alternatively, at least some winged 'grylloblattodeans' may represent stem-xenonomians (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Xenonomia
    |--Mantophasmatodea TW05
    |    |  i. s.: Adicophasma spinosa GE05
    |    |         Raptophasma Zompro 2001 GE05, KZ02
    |    |           `--R. kerneggeri Zompro 2001 KZ02
    |    |         Praedatophasma maraisi Zompro & Adis 2002 KP03
    |    |--Austrophasmatidae GE05
    |    |    |  i. s.: Namaquaphasma Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |    |           `--*N. ookiepensis Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |    |--+--Lobophasma Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |    |  |    `--*L. redelinghuysensis Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |    |  `--Austrophasma Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |    |       |--*A. caledonensis Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |    |       |--A. gansbaaiensis Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |    |       `--A. rawsonvillensis Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |    `--+--Hemilobophasma Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |       |    `--*H. montaguensis Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |       `--Karoophasma Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |            |--*K. biedouwensis Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |            `--K. botterkloofensis Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |--Mantophasmatidae TW05
    |    |    |--Sclerophasma Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |    |    `--*S. paresisensis Klass, Picker et al. 2003 KP03
    |    |    |--Tyrannophasma gladiator TW05
    |    |    `--Mantophasma Zompro, Klass et al. in Klass, Zompro et al. 2002 KZ02
    |    |         `--*M. zephyra Zompro, Klass et al. in Klass, Zompro et al. 2002 KZ02
    |    `--Tanzaniophasma Klass, Picker et al. 2003 [Tanzaniophasmatidae] KP03
    |         `--*T. subsolana (Zompro, Klass et al. in Klass, Zompro et al. 2002) [=Mantophasma subsolana] KP03
    `--Grylloblattodea [Grylloblattaria, Grylloblattoidea, Notoptera] TW05
         |  i. s.: Olgaephilus St02
         |         Haplopterum St02
         |         Kargarella St02
         |         Thaumatophora pronotalis Si02
         |         Sylvonympha tshekardensis St02
         |--Protoperlina GE05
         `--+--Nele Ansorge 1996 BN05 [Neleidae St02]
            |--Kortshakoliidae St02
            |--Mesorthopteron F71 [Mesorthopteridae St02]
            |    `--M. locustoides F71
            |--Archiprobnis BN02 [Archiprobnidae St02]
            |    |--A. conjuncta BN02
            |    `--A. repens BN02
            |--Geinitziidae [Prosepididontidae] St02
            |    |--Prosepididontes calopterix St02
            |    `--Shurabia St02
            `--+--Ideliidae St02
               |    |--Ideliopsina nana Z02
               |    |--Sojanidelia floralis St02
               |    |--Archidelia ovata St02
               |    `--Sylvidelia latipennis St02
               `--+--Permotermopsidae St02
                  `--+--Megakhosaridae St02
                     `--+--Blattogryllidae St02
                        |    |--Dorniella St02
                        |    `--Blattogryllus karatavicus GE05
                        `--Grylloblattidae St02
                             |--Grylloblatta campodeiformis Walker 1914 KP03
                             |    |--G. c. campodeiformis R00
                             |    `--G. c. occidentalis R00
                             |--Grylloblattella GE05
                             |--Grylloblattina GE05
                             |--Galloisiana notabilis Silvestri 1927 GE05, I92
                             `--Namkungia GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

[BN05] Béthoux, O., A. Nel, J. Lapeyrie & G. Gand. 2005. New data on Paleozoic grylloblattid insects (Neoptera). Journal of Paleontology 79 (1): 125-138.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KP03] Klass, K.-D., M. D. Picker, J. Damgaard, S. van Noort & K. Tojo. 2003. The taxonomy, genitalic morphology, and phylogenetic relationships of southern African Mantophasmatodea (Insecta). Entomologische Abhandlungen 61 (1): 3-67.

[KZ02] Klass, K.-D., O. Zompro, N. P. Kristensen & J. Adis. 2002. Mantophasmatodea: A new insect order with extant members in the Afrotropics. Science 296: 1456-1459.

[Si02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Order Perlida Latreille, 1810. The stoneflies (=Plecoptera Burmeister, 1839). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 281-287. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[St02] Storozhenko, S. Yu. 2002. Order Grylloblattida Walker, 1914 (=Notoptera Crampton, 1915, =Grylloblattodea Brues et Melander, 1932, +Protorthoptera Handlirsch, 1906, =Paraplecoptera Martynov, 1925, +Protoperlaria Tillyard, 1928). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 278-281. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS