Slowworm Anguis fragilis, copyright Hans Hillewaert.

Belongs within: Anguimorpha.

The Anguidae, glass lizards and allies, are a group of lizards found in Eurasia, northern Africa and the Americas that are characterised by rectangular scales, osteoderms in the ventral skin, a reduced supratemporal arch and striations on the medial face of the tooth crowns (Animal Diversity Web).

    |--Diploglossus [Diploglosseae, Diploglossinae] H81
    |    |--D. bilobatus MH11
    |    |--D. occiduus (Shaw 1802) H81
    |    `--D. pleei MH11
    |--Glyptosaurinae SH96
    |    |--Helodermoides Douglass 1903 [Glyptosaurini] SH96
    |    |    `--H. tuberculatus Douglass 1903 [incl. Glyptosaurus giganteus Gilmore 1928, G. montanus Douglass 1908] SH96
    |    `--Melanosaurini SH96
    |         |--Melanosaurus LBG12
    |         `--Peltosaurus Cope 1873 SH96
    |              `--*P. granulosus Cope 1873 (see below for synonymy) SH96
    |--Ophisaurus Daudin 1803 [incl. Dopasia Gray 1853; Ophisaureae, Ophisaurinae] RB05
    |    |--O. attenuatus JP79
    |    |--O. canadensis SH96
    |    |--O. compressus DO99
    |    |--O. formosensis Kishida 1930 TYM08
    |    |--O. harti [=Dopasia harti] SH96
    |    |--O. roqueprunensis Augé 1992 SH96
    |    `--O. ventralis AM99
    `--Anguinae SH96
         |--Parophisaurus Sullivan 1987 SH96
         |    `--*P. pawneensis (Gilmore 1928) (see below for synonymy) SH96
         `--Anguis Linnaeus 1758 [Anguieae] L58
              |--A. bipes Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--A. cephallonica [incl. A. fragilis peloponnesiacus] N10
              |--A. cerastes Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--A. colchica [=A. fragilis colchica, A. fragilis colchicus] N10
              |--A. colubrina Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--A. eryx Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--A. fragilis Linnaeus 1758 BB03
              |--A. graeca N10
              |--A. jaculus Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--A. laticauda Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--A. lumbricalis Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--A. maculata Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--A. meleagris Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--A. reticulata Linnaeus 1758 L58
              `--A. scytale Linnaeus 1758 L58

Anguidae incertae sedis:
  Odaxosaurus piger Gilmore 1928 B93 [=Pancelosaurus piger G88]
  Proxestops LBG12
  Parodaxosaurus LBG12
  Paraglyptosaurus LBG12
  Apodosauriscus LBG12
  Eodiploglossus LBG12
  Gaultia LBG12
  Gerrhonotus [Gerrhonoteae] LBG12
    |--G. liocephalus MH11
    `--G. multicarinatus GWN71
  Abronia DD61
    |--A. deppi DD61
    `--A. graminea MH11
  Barisia DD61
    |--B. gadovi DD61
    `--B. imbricata MH11
  Celestus LBG12
    |--C. enneagrammus MH11
    |--C. occiduus FS01
    `--C. sagrae F15
  Pseudopus Merrem 1820 RB05
    |--P. apodus (Pallas 1775) RB05 [=Ophisaurus apodus B89]
    |--P. laurillardi (Lartet 1851) [=Anguis laurillardi, Ophisaurus laurillardi] RB05
    |--P. moguntinus (Boettger 1875) RB05 (see below for synonymy)
    `--P. pannonicus (Kormos 1911) RB05 [=Ophisaurus pannonicus B89]
  Elgaria AS09
    |--E. coerulea MH11
    |--E. kingii MH11
    |--E. multicarinata MH11
    |--E. panamintina MH11
    `--E. paucicarinata MH11
  Ophisauriscus quadrupes SH96
  Placosaurus SH96

*Parophisaurus pawneensis (Gilmore 1928) [=Xestops pawneensis, Machaerosaurus pawneensis, Pancelosaurus pawneensis] SH96

*Peltosaurus granulosus Cope 1873 [incl. P. abbotti Gilmore 1928, P. abbottii (l. c.), P. floridanus Vanzolini 1952] SH96

Pseudopus moguntinus (Boettger 1875) RB05 [=Ophisaurus moguntinus B89; incl. Propseudopus fraasi Hilgendorf 1883 RB05]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS09] Alfaro, M. E., F. Santini, C. Brock, H. Alamillo, A. Dornburg, D. L. Rabosky, G. Carnevale & L. J. Harmon. 2009. Nine exceptional radiations plus high turnover explain species diversity in jawed vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (32): 13410–13414.

[AM99] Anderson, J. F., & L. A. Magnarelli. 1999. Enzootiology of Borrelia burgdorferi in the northeastern and northcentral United States. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 385–389. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[B89] Bailon, S. 1989. Les amphibiens et les reptiles du Pliocene superieur de Balaruc II (Herault, France). Palaeovertebrata 19 (1): 7–28.

[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Reptilia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 681–715. Chapman & Hall: London.

[BB03] Blain, H.-A., & S. Bailon. 2003. Les amphibiens et les reptiles des couches du Pléistocène supérieur ancien du gisement d’Artenac (Charente, France). Quaternaire 14 (1): 85–95.

[DD61] Davis, W. B., & J. R. Dixon. 1961. Reptiles (exclusive of snakes) of the Chilpancingo Region, Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 37–56.

[DO99] Durden, L. A., & J. H. Oliver Jr. 1999. Ecology of Ixodes scapularis and Lyme disease in coastal Georgia, USA. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 379–383. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[FS01] Flannery, T., & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World’s Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[F15] Fowler, H. W. 1915. Cold-blooded vertebrates from Florida, the West Indies, Costa Rica, and eastern Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 244–269.

[GWN71] Gorman, G. C., A. C. Wilson & M. Nakanishi. 1971. A biochemical approach towards the study of reptilian phylogeny: evolution of serum albumin and lactic dehydrogenase. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 167–185.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[H81] Honegger, R. E. 1981. List of amphibians and reptiles either known or thought to have become extinct since 1600. Biological Conservation 19: 141–158.

[JP79] Jackson, J. F., & J. A. Pounds. 1979. Comments on assessing the dedifferentiating effect of gene flow. Systematic Zoology 28 (1): 78–85.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LBG12] Longrich, N. R., B.-A. S. Bhullar & J. A. Gauthier. 2012. Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (52): 21396–21401.

[MH11] Müller, J., C. A. Hipsley, J. J. Head, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, M. Wuttke & R. R. Reisz. 2011. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins. Nature 473: 364–367.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[RB05] Rage, J.-C., & S. Bailon. 2005. Amphibians and squamate reptiles from the late early Miocene (MN 4) of Béon 1 (Montréal-du-Gers, southwestern France). Geodiversitas 27 (3): 413–441.

[SH96] Sullivan, R. M., & J. A. Holman. 1996. Squamata. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 354–372. Cambridge University Press.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

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