Carduelinae

Yellow canaries Serinus flaviventris, copyright Jaffles.


Belongs within: Fringillidae.
Contains: Drepaninini, Carpodacus, Pyrrhula, Loxia, Acanthis, Carduelis, Serinus, Spinus, Chloris.

The Carduelinae are a group of finches found in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas. They have upper bills that are generally distinctly longer than the lower bill, and a well-developed crop that is used to store food. Nestlings are fed on regurgitated seeds rather than on insects.

<==Carduelinae [Carduelidae, Carduelina, Carduelini] SA82
    |--+--+--‘Emberiza’ affinis BKB15
    |  |  `--Coccothraustes Brisson 1760 JT12, M02 [Coccothraustinae]
    |  |       |--C. abeillei JT12
    |  |       |--C. balcanicus Boev 1998 M02
    |  |       |--C. coccothraustes (Linnaeus 1758) [=Loxia coccothraustes] M02
    |  |       |--C. japonicus Temm. & Schl. 1850 M01 [=C. vulgaris japonicus M01, C. coccothraustes japonicus VP89]
    |  |       |--C. simeonovi Boev 1998 M02
    |  |       `--C. vespertinus [=Hesperiphona vespertinus] JF06
    |  `--+--Eophona JT12
    |     |    |--E. migratoria VP89
    |     |    `--E. personata VP89 [=Coccothraustes personatus T89]
    |     `--Mycerobas JT12
    |          |--M. affinis JF06
    |          |--M. carnipes JF06
    |          |--M. icterioides JT12
    |          `--M. melanozanthos JT12
    `--+--+--+--Bucanetes githagineus BKB15
       |  |  `--Eremopsaltria mongolicus JT12
       |  `--Drepaninini BKB15
       `--+--+--Carpodacus BKB15
          |  `--+--Bucanetes mongolicus BKB15
          |     `--+--+--Pinicola BKB15
          |        |  |    |--P. enucleator JF06
          |        |  |    `--P. subhimachala JT12
          |        |  `--Pyrrhula BKB15
          |        `--+--Pyrrhoplectes epauletta BKB15
          |           `--Leucosticte BKB15
          |                |  i. s.: L. sillemi JT12
          |                |--+--L. nemoricola BKB15
          |                |  `--‘Carpodacus’ nipalensis BKB15
          |                `--+--L. brandti JT12
          |                   `--+--L. arctoa JT12
          |                      `--+--L. tephrocotis JT12
          |                         `--+--L. atrata JT12
          |                            `--L. australis JT12
          `--+--+--‘Carpodacus’ mexicanus BKB15
             |  |    |--C. m. mexicanus L81
             |  |    |--C. m. amplus MS55
             |  |    `--C. m. frontalis L81
             |  `--+--‘Carpodacus’ cassinii BKB15
             |     `--‘Carpodacus’ purpureus JT12
             `--+--Rhodospiza obsoleta BKB15
                `--+--+--+--Loxia BKB15
                   |  |  `--Acanthis BKB15
                   |  `--+--+--Carduelis BKB15
                   |     |  `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinella BKB15
                   |     |     `--‘Serinus’ corsicanus BKB15
                   |     `--+--‘Serinus’ thibetanus BKB15
                   |        `--+--Serinus BKB15
                   |           `--+--Linota Bonaparte 1838 [Linotinae] CC10
                   |              |    |--*L. cannabina (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, M02 (see below for synonymy)
                   |              |    `--L. flavirostris (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |              `--Spinus BKB15
                   `--+--+--+--+--+--Pseudochloroptila totta BKB15 [=Serinus totta JT12]
                      |  |  |  |  `--+--‘Serinus’ striolatus (Rüppell 1840) JT12, S05 [=Pyrrhula striolata S05]
                      |  |  |  |     `--‘Serinus’ whytii JT12
                      |  |  |  `--‘Serinus’ burtoni BKB15
                      |  |  `--+--‘Serinus’ albogularis BKB15
                      |  |     `--+--+--‘Serinus’ gularis BKB15
                      |  |        |  `--‘Serinus’ reichardi BKB15
                      |  |        `--+--‘Serinus’ mennelli BKB15
                      |  |           `--+--‘Serinus’ flaviventris BKB15
                      |  |              |    |--S. f. flaviventris B93
                      |  |              |    |--S. f. marshalli L81
                      |  |              |    `--S. f. quintoni Winterbottom 1959 B93
                      |  |              `--‘Serinus’ sulphuratus JT12
                      |  `--+--+--‘Serinus’ scotops BKB15
                      |     |  `--+--‘Serinus’ capistratus JT12
                      |     |     `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinelloides Rüppell 1840 JT12, S05 (see below for synonymy)
                      |     |        `--‘Serinus’ hypostictus JT12
                      |     `--+--‘Serinus’ dorsostriatus BKB15
                      |        `--+--‘Serinus’ mozambicus BKB15
                      |           |    |--S. m. mozambicus L81
                      |           |    `--S. m. tando L81
                      |           `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinipectus BKB15
                      |              `--+--‘Serinus’ atrogularis JT12
                      |                 |    |--S. a. atrogularis B93
                      |                 |    `--S. a. lwenarum White 1944 B93
                      |                 `--‘Serinus’ leucopygius JT12
                      `--+--Linurgus olivaceus BKB15
                         `--+--Rhodopechys JT12
                            |    |--R. obsoletus JT12
                            |    `--R. sanguineus JT12
                            `--Chloris BKB15

*Linota cannabina (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, M02 [=Fringilla cannabina M02, Carduelis cannabina BKB15]

Linota flavirostris (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [=Fringilla flavirostris CC10, Carduelis flavirostris BKB15]

‘Serinus’ citrinelloides Rüppell 1840 JT12, S05 [incl. Fringilla chrysola ms S05, F. serina S05]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[SA82] Sibley, C. G., & J. E. Ahlquist. 1982. The relationships of the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepaninini) as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Auk 99: 130–140.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

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