Yellow canaries Serinus flaviventris, copyright Jaffles.

Belongs within: Fringillidae.
Contains: Drepaninini, Carpodacus, Pyrrhula, Loxia, Acanthis, Carduelis, Serinus, Spinus, Chloris.

The Carduelinae are a group of finches found in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas. They have upper bills that are generally distinctly longer than the lower bill, and a well-developed crop that is used to store food. Nestlings are fed on regurgitated seeds rather than on insects. Notable members include the hawfinches and grosbeaks of the genus Coccothraustes which have a particularly heavy beak used for cracking seeds and fruit kernels.

<==Carduelinae [Carduelidae, Carduelina, Carduelini] SA82
    |--+--+--Eophona JT12
    |  |  |    |--E. migratoria JF06
    |  |  |    `--E. personata JF06 [=Coccothraustes personatus T89]
    |  |  `--Mycerobas JT12
    |  |       |--M. affinis JF06
    |  |       |--M. carnipes JF06
    |  |       |--M. icterioides JT12
    |  |       `--M. melanozanthos JT12
    |  `--+--‘Emberiza’ affinis Heuglin 1867 BKB15, RJ11
    |     |    |--E. a. affinis RJ11
    |     |    |--E. a. nigeriae Bannerman & Bates 1926 RJ11
    |     |    |--E. a. omoensis Neumann 1905 RJ11
    |     |    `--E. a. vulpecula Grote 1921 RJ11
    |     `--Coccothraustes Brisson 1760 JT12, M02 [Coccothraustinae]
    |          |--C. abeillei JT12
    |          |--C. balcanicus Boev 1998 M02
    |          |--C. coccothraustes (Linnaeus 1758) [=Loxia coccothraustes] M02
    |          |--C. japonicus Temm. & Schl. 1850 M01 [=C. vulgaris japonicus M01, C. coccothraustes japonicus VP89]
    |          |--C. simeonovi Boev 1998 M02
    |          `--C. vespertinus JT12 [=Hesperiphona vespertinus JF06]
    `--+--+--Drepanidini BKB15
       |  `--+--Bucanetes githagineus BKB15
       |     `--Eremopsaltria mongolicus JT12
       `--+--+--Carpodacus BKB15
          |  `--+--Bucanetes mongolicus BKB15
          |     `--+--+--Pyrrhula BKB15
          |        |  `--Pinicola BKB15
          |        |       |--P. enucleator JT12
          |        |       `--P. subhimachala JT12
          |        `--+--Pyrrhoplectes epauletta BKB15
          |           `--Leucosticte BKB15
          |                |  i. s.: L. sillemi JT12
          |                |--+--L. nemoricola BKB15
          |                |  `--‘Carpodacus’ nipalensis BKB15
          |                `--+--L. brandti JT12
          |                   `--+--L. arctoa JT12
          |                      `--+--L. tephrocotis JT12
          |                         `--+--L. atrata JT12
          |                            `--L. australis JT12
          `--+--+--‘Carpodacus’ mexicanus BKB15
             |  |    |--C. m. mexicanus L81
             |  |    |--C. m. amplus MS55
             |  |    `--C. m. frontalis L81
             |  `--+--‘Carpodacus’ cassinii BKB15
             |     `--‘Carpodacus’ purpureus JT12
             `--+--Rhodospiza obsoleta BKB15
                `--+--+--+--Loxia BKB15
                   |  |  `--Acanthis BKB15
                   |  `--+--+--Carduelis BKB15
                   |     |  `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinella BKB15
                   |     |     `--‘Serinus’ corsicanus BKB15
                   |     `--+--‘Serinus’ thibetanus BKB15
                   |        `--+--Serinus BKB15
                   |           `--+--Spinus BKB15
                   |              `--Linota Bonaparte 1838 [Linotinae] CC10
                   |                   |--*L. cannabina (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |                   `--L. flavirostris (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   `--+--+--Linurgus olivaceus BKB15
                      |  `--+--Chloris BKB15
                      |     `--Rhodopechys JT12
                      |          |--R. obsoletus JT12
                      |          `--R. sanguineus JT12
                      `--+--+--+--‘Serinus’ burtoni BKB15
                         |  |  `--+--Pseudochloroptila totta BKB15 [=Serinus totta JT12]
                         |  |     `--+--‘Serinus’ striolatus (Rüppell 1840) JT12, S05 [=Pyrrhula striolata S05]
                         |  |        `--‘Serinus’ whytii JT12
                         |  `--+--‘Serinus’ albogularis BKB15
                         |     `--+--+--‘Serinus’ gularis BKB15
                         |        |  `--‘Serinus’ reichardi BKB15
                         |        `--+--‘Serinus’ mennelli BKB15
                         |           `--+--‘Serinus’ flaviventris BKB15
                         |              |    |--S. f. flaviventris B93
                         |              |    |--S. f. marshalli L81
                         |              |    `--S. f. quintoni Winterbottom 1959 B93
                         |              `--‘Serinus’ sulphuratus JT12
                         `--+--+--‘Serinus’ scotops BKB15
                            |  `--+--‘Serinus’ capistratus JT12
                            |     `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinelloides Rüppell 1840 JT12, S05 (see below for synonymy)
                            |        `--‘Serinus’ hypostictus JT12
                            `--+--‘Serinus’ dorsostriatus BKB15
                               `--+--‘Serinus’ mozambicus BKB15
                                  |    |--S. m. mozambicus L81
                                  |    `--S. m. tando L81
                                  `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinipectus BKB15
                                     `--+--‘Serinus’ atrogularis JT12
                                        |    |--S. a. atrogularis B93
                                        |    `--S. a. lwenarum White 1944 B93
                                        `--‘Serinus’ leucopygius JT12

*Linota cannabina (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [=Fringilla cannabina CC10, Carduelis cannabina BKB15]

Linota flavirostris (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [=Fringilla flavirostris CC10, Carduelis flavirostris BKB15]

‘Serinus’ citrinelloides Rüppell 1840 JT12, S05 [incl. Fringilla chrysola ms S05, F. serina S05]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SA82] Sibley, C. G., & J. E. Ahlquist. 1982. The relationships of the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepaninini) as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Auk 99: 130–140.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Last updated: 7 July 2019.

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