Short-nosed cattle louse Haematopinus eurysternus, from Quizlet.

Belongs within: Phthiraptera.

The Anoplura are a group of lice that have the mouthparts modified for sucking. All anoplurans are parasites of mammals. Species associated with humans are the crab louse Pthirus pubis and the head and body louse Pediculus humanus. Other species in the families Linognathidae and Haematopinus are associated with livestock.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): All thoracic segments fused; meso- and metathoracic terga reduced; tentorium completely lost; hypopharynx and labium modified into piercing stylets.

<==Anoplura [Siphunculata]
    |--Neolinognathidae GE05
    |--Pedicinus A71 [Pedicinidae GE05]
    |--Hamophthiriidae GE05
    |--Hybophthiridae GE05
    |--Microthoracius BE38 [Microthoraciidae GE05]
    |--Ratemiidae GE05
    |--Pecaroecus Babcock & Ewing 1938 BE38 [Pecaroecidae GE05]
    |    `--*P. javalii Babcock & Ewing 1938 BE38
    |--Pthirus [Pthiridae] GE05
    |    |--P. gorillae W92
    |    `--P. pubis GE05
    |--Enderleinellus S69 [Enderleinellidae GE05]
    |    |--E. dremomydis Ferris 1919 S69
    |    `--E. tamiasis Fahrenholz 1916 S69
    |--Echinophthiriidae GE05
    |    |--Lepidophthirus Enderlein 1904 HPP80
    |    |    `--L. macrorhini Enderlein 1904 HPP80
    |    |--Echinophthirius horridus GE05
    |    `--Antarctophthirus Enderlein 1906 HPP80
    |         |--A. microchir (Trouessart & Neumann 1888) HPP80
    |         `--A. ogmorhini N91
    |--Haematopinus [Haematopinidae] GE05
    |    |--H. asini CM91
    |    |--H. eurysternus CM91
    |    |--H. hesperomydis Osburn 1891 S69
    |    |--H. quadripertusus CM91
    |    |--H. suis CM91
    |    `--H. tuberculatus GE05
    |--Hoplopleura [Hoplopleuridae] GE05
    |    |--H. acanthopus GE05
    |    |--H. apomydis Ferris 1921 S69
    |    |--H. bidentata C70
    |    |--H. calabyi CM91
    |    |--H. pacifica CM91
    |    |--H. scapteromydis Ronderos 1965 L07
    |    `--H. zelotomydis Johnson 1960 S69
    |--Polyplacidae GE05
    |    |--Neohaematopinus relictus R02
    |    |--Haemodipsus CM91
    |    |    |--*H. lyriocephalus C70
    |    |    `--H. ventricosus CM91
    |    `--Polyplax GE05
    |         |--P. asiatica GE05
    |         |--P. otomydis Cummings 1912 S69
    |         |--P. serrata CM91
    |         `--P. spinulosa CM91
    |--Linognathidae GE05
    |    |--Solenopotes GE05
    |    |    |--S. capillatus CM91
    |    |    `--S. muntiacus GE05
    |    `--Linognathus CM91
    |         |--L. ovillus CM91
    |         |--L. pedalis CM91
    |         |--L. setosus CM91
    |         |--L. stenopsis CM91
    |         `--L. vituli CM91
    `--Pediculus Linnaeus 1758 S61 [Pediculidae GE05]
         |--P. anseris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. apis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. ardeae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. asini Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. bovis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. cameli Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. caponis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. cervi Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. charadrii Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. ciconiae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. cygni Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. equi Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. fulicae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. gallinae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. gruis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. haematopi Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. humanus Linnaeus 1758 L58 [incl. P. h. capitus GE05, P. h. corporis A71, P. h. vestimenti A71]
         |--P. infausti Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. lagopi Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. meleagridis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. moschatae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. ovis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. pari Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. picae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. plataleae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. pubis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. querquedulae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. recurvirostrae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. ricinoides Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. sternae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. suis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. tetraonis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--P. tinnunculi Linnaeus 1758 L58
         `--P. vituli Linnaeus 1758 L58

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BE38] Babcock, O. G., & H. E. Ewing. 1938. A new genus and species of Anoplura from the peccary. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (7): 197–201.

[C70] Calaby, J. H. 1970. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 376–386. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Calaby, J. H., & M. D. Murray. 1991. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 421–428. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HPP80] Horning, D. S., R. L. Palma & R. L. C. Pilgrim. 1980. The lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from the Snares Islands, New Zealand. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series 3: 1–17.

[L07] Lareschi, M. 2007. Seasonal occurrence of ectoparasites associated with the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) from Punta Lara, Argentina. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 233–240. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 125–133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

Last updated: 15 May 2022.

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