Muricidae

Candelabrum trophon Boreotrophon candelabrum, copyright Worldwide Conchology.


Belongs within: Muricoidea.
Contains: Pterynotus, Axymene, Terefundus, Muricopsis, Favartia, Murexiella, Ocenebra, Nucella, Trophon, Rapaninae, Dermomurex, Murex, Chicoreus, Siratus.

The Muricidae are a group of marine gastropods with strongly developed varices on the shells, commonly bearing prominent spines, flanges or other ornaments.

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Spire usually prominent; strongly developed varices often bearing prominent spines, nodules or fronds; aperture oval with folds or pointed teeth on outer lip; columella smooth or denticulate; large horny operculum present.

<==Muricidae [Muricedae, Muricina, Trophonidae]
    |--+--Ocenebrinae ZLK11
    |  |    |--Ocenebra BR05
    |  |    |--Nucella BR05
    |  |    `--Ecphora Conrad 1843 [Ecphorinae] BR05
    |  |         `--*E. quadricostata (Say 1824) [=Fusus quadricostatus] RA75
    |  `--Trophoninae ZLK11
    |       |--Trophon BR05
    |       `--Boreotrophon Fischer 1884 ZLK11, RA75
    |            |--*B. clathrata (Linné 1767) [=Murex clathrata] RA75
    |            |--B. candelabrum GAS03
    |            `--B. xestra ZLK11
    `--+--Rapaninae ZLK11
       `--Muricinae [Murexia] ZLK11
            |  i. s.: Dermomurex V95
            |         Aspella Mörch 1877 [Aspellinae] BR05
            |           |--*A. anceps (Lamarck 1822) [=Ranella anceps] RA75
            |           `--A. undata Hedley 1907 [=Clavus undatus] L54
            |         Pteropurpura Jousseaume 1880 O27
            |           |  i. s.: P. benderskyi Emerson & D’Attilio 1979 BC01
            |           |--P. (Pteropurpura) O27
            |           |    |--P. (*P.) macropterus (Deshayes 1839) [=Murex (*P.) macropterus] RA75
            |           |    |--P. (P.) carpenteri (Dall 1899) [=Murex (P.) carpenteri] O27
            |           |    |    |--M. c. carpenteri O27
            |           |    |    `--M. c. tremperi Hemphill 1911) [=Murex carpenteri tremperi] O27
            |           |    `--P. (P.) petri (Dall 1900) [=Murex (P.) petri] O27
            |           `--P. (Centrifuga Grant & Gale 1931) BC01
            |                `--P. (*C.) centrifuga (Hinds 1844) BC01, RA75 [=Murex centrifuga RA75]
            |         Trialatella Berry 1964 PP78, RA75
            |           `--*T. cunninghamae Berry 1964 RA75 [=Aspella (Trialatella) cunninghamae PP78]
            |--Murex ZLK11
            `--+--+--Chicoreus ZLK11
               |  `--Bolinus Pusch 1837 S11, RA75 [=Rhinocantha Adams & Adams 1853 RA75]
               |       `--*B. brandaris (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex brandaris, *Rhinocantha brandaris] RA75
               `--+--Siratus ZLK11
                  `--Muricanthus Swainson 1840 ZLK11, RA75 [=Centronotus Swainson 1833 non Schneider 1801 RA75]
                       |--*M. radix (Gmelin 1791) [=Murex radix, *Centronotus radix] RA75
                       `--‘Murex’ duplex Röding 1798 [incl. M. eurystomus Swainson 1833, Centronotus eurystomus] RA75

Muricidae incertae sedis:
  Ocinebrellus Jousseaume 1880 AV03, RA75 [=Ternaria Coen 1943 RA75]
    |--*O. eurypteron (Reeve 1845) [=Murex eurypteron, *Ternaria eurypteron] RA75
    |--O. aduncus AV03
    `--O. nagaokai AV03
  Uttleya Marwick 1934 P66
    |--*U. arcana Marwick 1934 RA75
    |--U. ahiparana (Powell 1927) P61
    |--U. marwicki Powell 1952 P61
    `--U. williamsi Powell 1952 P66
  Plicopurpura Cossmann 1903 CWN94, RA75 [=Purpurella Dall 1871 non Robineau-Desvoidy 1853 RA75]
    |--*P. columellaris (Lamarck 1816) [=Purpura columellaris, *Purpurella columellaris] RA75
    |--P. pansa CWN94
    `--P. patula CWN94
  Ceratostoma Hermannsen 1846 AV03, RA75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. nuttallii (Conrad 1837) [=Murex (*Cerastoma) nuttallii, *Spinostoma nuttalli] RA75
    |--C. burnetti AV03
    |--C. foliatum AV03
    `--C. inornatum CH97
  Hexaplex Swainson 1833 WG71, BC01
    |--*H. cichoreus (Gmelin 1791) [=Murex chicoreum] RA75
    |--H. conatus P95
    |--H. kusterianus [=Muricanthus kusterianus] BC01
    |    |--H. k. kusterianus BC01
    |    `--H. k. bozzadamii (Franchi 1990) [=Muricanthus kusterianus bozzadamii] BC01
    |--H. rileyi D’Attilio & Myers 1984 BC01
    `--H. stainforthi Reeve 1842 WG71
  Pterynotus MG-H11
  Haustellum Schumacher 1817 V90
    |--*H. haustellum (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex haustellum] RA75
    |--H. chrysostoma (Sowerby 1834) [=Murex chrysostoma] V90
    |--H. donmoorei (Bullis 1964) [=Murex (Murex) donmoorei] BC01
    |--H. kiiensis (Kira 1959) V90
    |--H. messorius (Sowerby 1844) BC01 (see below for synonymy)
    |--H. multiplicatus (Sowerby 1895) MG-H11
    |--H. tweedianum Macpherson 1962 WG71
    `--H. wilsoni D’Attilio & Old 1971 BC01
  Homalocantha Mörch 1852 WG71
    |--*H. scorpio (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex scorpio] RA75
    |--H. anatomica Perry 1811 [incl. H. pele Pilsbry 1921, H. rota Mawe 1823] WG71
    |--H. secunda Lamarck 1822 [incl. H. varicosa Sowerby 1841] WG71
    `--H. zamboi (Burch & Burch 1960) [=Murex (Homalocantha) anatomica zamboi] BC01
  Vitularia Swainson 1840 WG71 [incl. Vitulina Swainson 1840 RA75]
    |--V. miliaris (Gmelin 1791) WG71 (see below for synonymy)
    |--V. candida Adams & Adams 1863 F27a
    `--V. salebrosa (King & Broderip 1832) S11
  Bedeva Iredale 1924 WG71
    `--B. paivae (Crosse 1864) HJ08 (see below for synonymy)
  Xymene Iredale 1915 F27a [=Kalydon Hutton 1884 (nom. rej.) RA75]
    |--*X. plebeia (Hutton 1873) RA75 [=Fusus plebeius RA75, Trophon (*Kalydon) plebejus F27a, RA75]
    |--X. ambiguus HS01
    |--X. drewi (Hutton 1883) [=Cominella drewi] F27a
    |--X. expansa (Hutton 1883) [=Trophon expansus] F27a
    |--X. inferus (Hutton 1873) P61 [=Fusus inferus F27a, Trophon (Kalydon) inferus F27a]
    |--X. pulcherrima (Suter 1917) [=Trophon (Xanthochorus) pulcherrimus] F27a
    `--X. traversi HS01
  Galfridus Iredale 1924 F27a
    |--*G. speciosus (Angas 1871) RA75 [=Triton (Cumia) speciosum RA75, Craspedotriton speciosus P61]
    `--G. virginalis (Suter 1913) [=Trophon virginalis] F27a
  Zeatrophon Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*Z. ambiguus (Philippi 1844) RA75 [=Fusus ambiguus RA75, Trophon ambiguus F27a]
    |--Z. bonneti (Cossmann 1903) [=Trophon (Trophonopsis) bonneti] F27a
    |--Z. caudatinus Finlay 1930 P61
    |--Z. caudatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) P61 [=Siphonalia caudata F27a]
    |--Z. huttoni (Murdoch 1900) [=Trophon huttoni] F27a
    |--Z. mortenseni (Odhner 1924) [=Trophon mortenseni] F27a
    |--Z. pulcherrimus Finlay 1930 P61
    |--Z. pumilus (Suter 1899) P61
    `--Z. tmetus Finlay 1930 P61
  Xymenella Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*X. pusilla (Suter 1907) RA75 [=Trophon (Trophonopsis) pusillus F27a]
    |--X. gouldi (Cossmann 1903) [=Trophon gouldi, Xymene oliveri Marwick 1924] F27c
    |--X. lepida (Suter 1917) [=Trophon (Kalydon) lepidus] F27a
    |--X. minutissima (Suter 1917) [=Trophon (Kalydon) minutissimus] F27a
    `--X. suteri (Marshall & Murdoch 1921) [=Cymatium suteri] F27a
  Paratrophon Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*P. cheesemani (Hutton 1882) RA75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. exsculptus Powell 1933 P61
    |--P. patens (Hombron & Jacquinot 1854) P61
    |--P. quoyi HS01
    `--P. stangeri (Gray 1843) (see below for synonymy) F27a
  Axymene F27a
  Comptella Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*C. curta (Murdoch 1905) RA75 [=Trophon (Kalydon) curtus F27a]
    |--C. coronata Dell 1956 P61
    `--C. devia (Suter 1908) [=Mangilia devia] F27a
  Terefundus F27a
  Vesanula Finlay 1926 F27a
    |--*V. chaskanon (Finlay 1926) [=Trophon chaskanon] RA75
    |--V. maorum (M. & M. 1923) [=Columbarium maorum] F27a
    |--V. tegens (Hutton 1877) F27a
    `--V. vegrandis (M. & M. 1923) [=Pagodula vegrandis] F27a
  Hadriania Bucquoy & Dautzenberg 1882 F27c, RA75
    |--H. craticuloides Vokes 1964 (see below for synonymy) RA75
    `--H. basedowi Cossmann 1903 [=Murex irregularis Tate 1888 non Bellardi 1873] F27c
  Urosalpinx Stimpson 1865 O27
    `--*U. cinereus (Say 1822) [=Fusus cinereus] RA75
         |--U. c. cinereus D88
         `--U. c. follyensis Baker 1951 D88
  Eupleura Adams & Adams 1853 O27
    |--*E. caudata (Say 1822) [=Ranella caudata] RA75
    |    |--E. c. caudata D88
    |    `--E. c. etterae Baker 1951 D88
    `--E. grippi Dall 1911 O27
  Forreria Jousseaume 1880 O27
    `--*F. belcheri (Hinds 1844) RA75 [=Murex belcheri RA75, Chorus belcheri O27]
  Brocchitas Finlay 1927 DK08
    `--*B. exilis (Tate 1888) DK08 (see below for synonymy)
  Marchia Jousseaume 1880 BW09, RA75
    |--‘Murex’ elongata Lightfoot 1786 [incl. Murex clavus Kiener 1843, *Marchia clava] RA75
    `--M. martinetana (Röding 1798) BW09
  Muricodrupa Iredale 1918 BW09, RA75
    |--‘Murex’ funiculus Wood 1828 [incl. Purpura fenestrata Blainville 1832, *Muricodrupa fenestrata] RA75
    |--M. jacobsoni Emerson & D’Attilio 1981 BC01
    `--M. stellaris (Hombron & Jacquinot 1853) BW09
  Pascula Dall 1908 BW09, RA75
    |--*P. citrica (Dall 1908) [=Trophon (*Pascula) citricus] RA75
    `--P. ochrostoma (Blainville 1832) BW09
  Pseudosalpinx Olsson, Harbison et al. 1953 RA75
    `--*P. floridana (Conrad 1837) RA75 [=Urosalpinx floridana O27; incl. Murex ostrearum Conrad 1846 RA75]
  Rugotyphis Vella 1961 RA75
    `--*R. francescae (Finlay 1924) RA75 [=Typhis francescae F27a]
  Pagodula Monterosato 1884 MG-H11, RA75
    |--*P. vaginata (Cristofori & Jan 1832) [=Murex vaginata] RA75
    `--P. carduelis (Watson 1886) MG-H11
  Bizetiella Radwin & D’Attilio 1972 BC01, RA75
    |--*B. carmen (Lowe 1935) [=Tritonalia carmen] RA75
    `--B. shaskyi Radwin & D’Attilio 1972 BC01
  Calotrophon Hertlein & Strong 1951 BC01, RA75
    |--‘Tritonalia’ turrita Dall 1919 [incl. *Calotrophon bristolae Hertlein & Strong 1951] RA75
    `--C. andrewsi Vokes 1976 BC01
  Distichotyphis Keen & Campbell 1964 BC01, RA75
    `--*D. vemae Keen & Campbell 1964 RA75
  Haustellotyphis Jousseaume 1880 BC01, RA75
    |--*H. cumingi (Broderip 1833) [=Typhis cumingi] RA75
    `--H. wendita Hertz 1995 BC01
  Ocinebrina Jousseaume 1880 BC01, RA75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--O. aciculata (Lamarck 1822) (see below for synonymy) RA75
    `--O. adansoni Kosuge & Fernandes 1989 BC01
  Poirieria Jousseaume 1880 BC01, RA75
    |  i. s.: P. galapagana (Emerson & D’Attilio 1970) [=Murex galapaganus] BC01
    |         P. kopua Dell 1956 P61
    |--*P. (Poirieria) zelandica (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) [=Murex zelandicus] RA75
    |--P. (Panamurex Woodring 1959) BC01, RA75
    |    |--*Panamurex’ gatunensis (Brown & Pilsbry 1911) [=Murex gatunensis] RA75
    |    `--P. (P.) velero Vokes 1970 BC01
    `--P. (Paziella Jousseaume 1880) BC01 [incl. Dallimurex Rehder 1946 RA75]
         |--*Paziella’ pazi (Crosse 1869) (see below for synonymy) RA75
         `--P. (P.) oregonia (Bullis 1964) [=Murex (Poirieria) oregonia] BC01
  Pterotyphis Jousseaume 1880 BC01, RA75 [=Perotyphis RA75]
    `--*P. pinnatus (Broderip 1833) [=Typhis pinnatus] RA75
  Daphnellopsis Schepman 1913 BK11, P66
    |--*D. lamellosa Schepman 1913 P66
    `--D. murex Hedley 1922 P66
  Concepcionella Bandel & Stinnesbeck 2000 BD12
    `--*C. bonillana Bandel & Stinnesbeck 2000 BD12
  Pterymarchia tripterus (Born 1778) BD12
  Haustrum Perry 1811 BR05 [=Lepsia Hutton 1884 RA75; Haustrinae]
    |--H. haustorium (Gmelin 1791) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--H. zealandicum P61
  Tripterotyphis Pilsbry & Lowe 1932 [Tripterotyphinae] BR05
    |--*T. lowei (Pilsbry 1931) RA75 [=Typhis lowei RA75, Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) lowei PP78]
    |--T. arcana (DuShane 1969) [=Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) arcana] BC01
    `--T. fayae (Keen & Campbell 1964) [=Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) fayae] BC01
  Typhis Montfort 1810 [Typhinae] BR05
    |  i. s.: T. maccoyi [incl. T. hebetatus] F27a
    |         T. philippensis Watson 1886 WG71
    |         T. yatesi Crosse 1865 WG71
    |         T. zealandica Hutton 1873 F27a
    |--*T. (Typhis) tubifer (Bruguière 1792) [=Murex tubifer, Poropteron tubifer] RA75
    `--T. (Typhina Jousseaume 1880) BC01
         |--T. (*T.) belcheri Broderip 1833 RA75
         `--T. (T.) riosi (Bertsch & D’Attilio 1980) [=Typhina riosi] BC01
  Muricopsinae DM88
    |--Muricopsis BR05
    |--Favartia DM88
    |--Murexiella BC01
    `--Murexsul Iredale 1915 BC01
         |--*M. octogonus (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) [=Murex octogonus] RA75
         |--M. brazieri Angas 1877 WG71
         |--M. cuvierensis Finlay 1927 F27b
         |--M. elatensis (Emerson & D’Attilio 1979) (see below for synonymy) BC01
         |--M. fimbriatus Lamarck 1822 WG71
         |--M. jacquelinae Emerson & D’Attilio 1969 BC01
         |--M. mariae Finlay 1930 P61
         |--M. prionotus (Tate 1888) DK08
         `--M. umbilicatus (Tenison Woods 1875) WG71 [=Trophon umbilicatus F27a]
  ‘Nassarina’ grayi R77
  Attiliosa Emerson 1968 PP78, RA75
    |-*A. incompta (Berry 1960) [=Coralliophila incompta] RA75
    |--A. aldridgei (Usticke 1969) [=Vasum aldridgei] BC01
    `--A. carmen (Lowe 1935) PP78
  Typhinellus Jousseaume 1880 P61
    |--*T. sowerbii (Broderip 1833) [=Typhis sowerbii, Typhis sowerbiyi (l. c.)] RA75
    `--T. pauperis (Mestayer 1916) [=Typhis (Typhinellus) pauperis] P61
  Emozamia Iredale 1929 RA75
    `--*E. licinus (Hedley & Petterd 1906) [=Murex licinus] RA75
  Chathamidea Dell 1956 P61
    `--*C. expeditionis Dell 1956 RA75
  Maculotriton BW09
    |--*M. bracteatus (Hinds 1844) [=Triton bracteata] RA75
    |--M. bicolor M54
    `--M. serriale (Deshayes 1830) BD12

Bedeva paivae (Crosse 1864) HJ08 [=Trophon paivae RA75, T. (Kalydon) paivae F27a, Xymene paivae F27a; incl. Trophon hanleyi Angas 1867 RA75, *Bedeva hanleyi RA75, Xymene quirindus Iredale 1915 F27a]

Brocchitas exilis (Tate 1888) DK08 [=Fasciolaria exilis F27c, Fusus exilis nec Menke 1843 nec Philippi 1843 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.) F27c, Latirofusus exilis F27c, Streptochetus exilis F27c, S. adelomorphus Cossmann 1901 F27c]

Ceratostoma Hermannsen 1846 AV03, RA75 [=Cerastoma Conrad 1837 non Latreille 1802 RA75, Spinostoma Coen 1943 RA75]

Hadriania craticuloides Vokes 1964 [incl. Murex craticulatus Brocchi 1814 non Linnaeus 1758, *Hadriania craticulata] RA75

Haustellum messorius (Sowerby 1844) BC01 [=Murex messorius V90; incl. M. messorius var. gustaviensis Usticke 1969 BC01]

Haustrum haustorium (Gmelin 1791) P61 [=Buccinum haustorium RA75; incl. B. haustrum Martyn 1788 (nom. inv.) RA75, *Haustrum haustrum RA75, *Lepsia haustrum RA75, Thais haustrum F27a]

Murexsul elatensis (Emerson & D’Attilio 1979) [=Favartia elatensis, Muricopsis (Murexsul) elatensis] BC01

Ocinebrina Jousseaume 1880 BC01, RA75 [incl. Corallinia Buzquoy & Dautzenberg in Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus 1882 RA75]

Ocinebrina aciculata (Lamarck 1822) [=Murex aciculatus, *Corallinia aciculata; incl. Fusus corallinus Scacchi 1836, *Ocinebrina corallina] RA75

*Paratrophon cheesemani (Hutton 1882) RA75 [=Polytropa cheesemani RA75, Trophon (Xanthochorus) cheesemani F27a]

Paratrophon stangeri (Gray 1843) [=Trophon rugosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) (preoc.), Fusus stangeri, Trophon (Trophon) stangeri; incl. Polytropa retiaria Hutton 1878] F27a

*Paziella’ pazi (Crosse 1869) [=Murex pazi; incl. M. nuttingi Dall 1896, *Dallimurex nuttingi] RA75

Vitularia miliaris (Gmelin 1791) WG71 [=Murex miliaris RA75; incl. *Vitularia tuberculata Swainson 1840 RA75, M. vitulina Lamarck 1816 RA75, *Vitulina vitulina RA75]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

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[D88] D’Asaro, C. N. 1988. Micromorphology of neogastropod egg capsules. Nautilus 102 (4): 134–148.

[DM88] D’Attilio, A., & B. W. Myers. 1988. A new species of Favartia from the eastern Pacific (Gastropoda: Muricidae). Nautilus 102 (3): 106–109.

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