Muricidae

Candelabrum trophon Boreotrophon candelabrum, copyright Worldwide Conchology.


Belongs within: Neogastropoda.
Contains: Pterynotus, Axymene, Terefundus, Poirieria, Muricopsis, Favartia, Murexiella, Coralliophilinae, Ocenebra, Nucella, Trophon, Rapaninae, Dermomurex, Pteropurpura, Murex, Chicoreus, Siratus.

The Muricidae are a group of predatory marine gastropods that often possess strongly developed varices on the shell that may bear prominent spines, flanges or other ornaments. Members possess an accessory boring organ in the sole of the foot that secretes a compound used to soften the shells of mollusc prey, allowing the muricid's radula to erode a hole through the shell. They also produce a purple secretion from the hypobranchial organ used in defense. Within the Muricidae, members of the subfamily Muricinae are characterised by a long, straight siphonal canal and spinose or frondose varices. The Trophoninae have a similarly elongate siphonal canal but possess numerous laminate varices.

Muricidae [Muricedae, Muricoidea, Trophonidae] BR17
    |--+--Ocenebrinae ZLK11
    |  |    |--Ocenebra BR05
    |  |    |--Nucella ZLK11
    |  |    `--Ecphora Conrad 1843 [Ecphorinae] BR05
    |  |         |--*E. (Ecphora) quadricostata (Say 1824) [=Fusus quadricostatus] RA75
    |  |         `--E. (Planecphora) delicata Petuch 1989 P12
    |  `--Trophoninae ZLK11
    |       |--Trophon BD12
    |       `--Boreotrophon Fischer 1884 ZLK11, RA75
    |            |--*B. clathrata (Linné 1767) RA75 (see below for synonymy)
    |            |--B. bentleyi B56
    |            |--B. candelabrum GAS03
    |            |--B. triangulatus B56
    |            `--B. xestra ZLK11
    `--+--+--Rapaninae ZLK11
       |  `--+--Ergalatax Iredale 1931 ZLK11, BR05 [Ergalataxinae BR17]
       |     |    |--‘Buccinum’ contractum Reeve 1846 RA75 (see below for synonymy)
       |     |    `--E. margariticola ZLK11
       |     `--Drupella Thiele 1925 ZLK11, WG71
       |          |--*D. ochrostoma (Blainville 1832) RA75 (see below for synonymy)
       |          |--D. cornus (Röding 1798) BW09
       |          |--D. minuta Fujioka 1984 BC01
       |          `--D. rugosa (Born 1778) BW09
       `--Muricinae [Murexia] ZLK11
            |  i. s.: Dermomurex V95
            |         Pteropurpura O27
            |         Trialatella Berry 1964 PP78, RA75
            |           `--*T. cunninghamae Berry 1964 RA75 [=Aspella (Trialatella) cunninghamae PP78]
            |--Murex ZLK11
            `--+--+--Chicoreus ZLK11
               |  `--Bolinus Pusch 1837 S11, RA75 [=Rhinocantha Adams & Adams 1853 RA75]
               |       `--*B. brandaris (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex brandaris, *Rhinocantha brandaris] RA75
               `--+--Siratus ZLK11
                  `--Muricanthus Swainson 1840 ZLK11, RA75 [=Centronotus Swainson 1833 non Schneider 1801 RA75]
                       |--*M. radix (Gmelin 1791) RA75 (see below for synonymy)
                       `--‘Murex’ duplex Röding 1798 [incl. M. eurystomus Swainson 1833, Centronotus eurystomus] RA75

Muricidae incertae sedis:
  Ocinebrellus Jousseaume 1880 AV03, RA75 [=Ternaria Coen 1943 RA75]
    |--*O. eurypteron (Reeve 1845) [=Murex eurypteron, *Ternaria eurypteron] RA75
    |--O. aduncus AV03
    `--O. nagaokai AV03
  Uttleya Marwick 1934 P66
    |--*U. arcana Marwick 1934 RA75
    |--U. ahiparana (Powell 1927) P61
    |--U. marwicki Powell 1952 P61
    `--U. williamsi Powell 1952 P66
  Plicopurpura Cossmann 1903 CWN94, RA75 [=Purpurella Dall 1871 non Robineau-Desvoidy 1853 RA75]
    |--*P. columellaris (Lamarck 1816) [=Purpura columellaris, *Purpurella columellaris] RA75
    |--P. pansa CWN94
    `--P. patula CWN94
  Ceratostoma Hermannsen 1846 non Fr. 1818 (ICBN) AV03, RA75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. nuttallii (Conrad 1837) [=Murex (*Cerastoma) nuttallii, *Spinostoma nuttalli] RA75
    |--C. burnetti AV03 [=Cerastoma foliatum var. burnettii C64]
    |--C. foliatum (Martyn 1784) AV03, O27 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. inornatum CH97
    `--C. monoceros C64
  Hexaplex Swainson 1833 BC01
    |--*H. cichoreus (Gmelin 1791) [=Murex chicoreum] RA75
    |--H. conatus P95
    |--H. kusterianus [=Muricanthus kusterianus] BC01
    |    |--H. k. kusterianus BC01
    |    `--H. k. bozzadamii (Franchi 1990) [=Muricanthus kusterianus bozzadamii] BC01
    |--H. rileyi D’Attilio & Myers 1984 BC01
    `--H. stainforthi Reeve 1842 WG71
  Pterynotus BC01
  Haustellum Schumacher 1817 V90
    |--*H. haustellum (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex haustellum] RA75
    |--H. chrysostoma (Sowerby 1834) [=Murex chrysostoma] V90
    |--H. donmoorei (Bullis 1964) [=Murex donmoorei] BC01
    |--H. kiiensis (Kira 1959) V90
    |--H. messorius (Sowerby 1841) V90 (see below for synonymy)
    |--H. multiplicatus (Sowerby 1895) MG-H11
    |--H. tweedianum Macpherson 1962 WG71
    `--H. wilsoni D’Attilio & Old 1971 BC01
  Homalocantha Mörch 1852 BC01
    |--*H. scorpio (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex scorpio] RA75
    |--H. anatomica Perry 1811 [incl. H. pele Pilsbry 1921, H. rota Mawe 1823] WG71
    |--H. secunda Lamarck 1822 [incl. H. varicosa Sowerby 1841] WG71
    `--H. zamboi (Burch & Burch 1960) [=Murex (Homalocantha) anatomica zamboi] BC01
  Vitularia Swainson 1840 WG71 [incl. Vitulina Swainson 1840 RA75]
    |--V. miliaris (Gmelin 1791) WG71 (see below for synonymy)
    |--V. candida Adams & Adams 1863 F27a
    `--V. salebrosa (King & Broderip 1832) S11
  Bedeva Iredale 1924 WG71
    `--B. paivae (Crosse 1864) HJ08 (see below for synonymy)
  Xymene Iredale 1915 F27a [=Kalydon Hutton 1884 (nom. rej.) RA75]
    |--*X. plebeia (Hutton 1873) RA75 [=Fusus plebeius RA75, Trophon (*Kalydon) plebejus F27a, RA75]
    |--‘Ricinula’ adelaidensis [=Kalydon adelaidensis] H08
    |--X. ambiguus HS01
    |--X. drewi (Hutton 1883) [=Cominella drewi] F27a
    |--X. expansa (Hutton 1883) [=Trophon expansus] F27a
    |--X. inferus (Hutton 1873) P61 [=Fusus inferus F27a, Trophon (Kalydon) inferus F27a]
    |--‘Purpura’ neglecta [=Kalydon neglecta] H08
    |--X. pulcherrima (Suter 1917) [=Trophon (Xanthochorus) pulcherrimus] F27a
    `--X. traversi HS01
  Galfridus Iredale 1924 F27a
    |--*G. speciosus (Angas 1871) RA75 [=Triton (Cumia) speciosum RA75, Craspedotriton speciosus P61]
    `--G. virginalis (Suter 1913) [=Trophon virginalis] F27a
  Zeatrophon Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*Z. ambiguus (Philippi 1844) RA75 [=Fusus ambiguus RA75, Trophon ambiguus F27a]
    |--Z. bonneti (Cossmann 1903) [=Trophon (Trophonopsis) bonneti] F27a
    |--Z. caudatinus Finlay 1930 P61
    |--Z. caudatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) P61 [=Siphonalia mandarina var. caudata H86, F27a]
    |--Z. huttoni (Murdoch 1900) [=Trophon huttoni] F27a
    |--Z. mortenseni (Odhner 1924) [=Trophon mortenseni] F27a
    |--Z. pulcherrimus Finlay 1930 P61
    |--Z. pumilus (Suter 1899) P61
    `--Z. tmetus Finlay 1930 P61
  Xymenella Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*X. pusilla (Suter 1907) RA75 [=Trophon (Trophonopsis) pusillus F27a]
    |--X. gouldi (Cossmann 1903) [=Trophon gouldi, Xymene oliveri Marwick 1924] F27c
    |--X. lepida (Suter 1917) [=Trophon (Kalydon) lepidus] F27a
    |--X. minutissima (Suter 1917) [=Trophon (Kalydon) minutissimus] F27a
    `--X. suteri (Marshall & Murdoch 1921) [=Cymatium suteri] F27a
  Paratrophon Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*P. cheesemani (Hutton 1882) RA75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. exsculptus Powell 1933 P61
    |--P. patens (Hombron & Jacquinot 1854) P61
    |--P. quoyi HS01
    `--P. stangeri (Gray 1843) (see below for synonymy) F27a
  Axymene F27a
  Comptella Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*C. curta (Murdoch 1905) RA75 [=Trophon (Kalydon) curtus F27a]
    |--C. coronata Dell 1956 P61
    `--C. devia (Suter 1908) [=Mangilia devia] F27a
  Terefundus F27a
  Vesanula Finlay 1926 F27a
    |--*V. chaskanon (Finlay 1926) [=Trophon chaskanon] RA75
    |--V. maorum (M. & M. 1923) [=Columbarium maorum] F27a
    |--V. tegens (Hutton 1877) F27a
    `--V. vegrandis (M. & M. 1923) [=Pagodula vegrandis] F27a
  Hadriania Bucquoy & Dautzenberg 1882 F27c, RA75
    |--H. craticuloides Vokes 1964 (see below for synonymy) RA75
    `--H. basedowi Cossmann 1903 [=Murex irregularis Tate 1888 non Bellardi 1873] F27c
  Urosalpinx Stimpson 1865 O27
    `--*U. cinereus (Say 1822) [=Fusus cinereus] RA75
         |--U. c. cinereus D88
         `--U. c. follyensis Baker 1951 D88
  Eupleura Adams & Adams 1853 O27
    |--*E. caudata (Say 1822) [=Ranella caudata] RA75
    |    |--E. c. caudata D88
    |    `--E. c. etterae Baker 1951 D88
    `--E. grippi Dall 1911 O27
  Forreria Jousseaume 1880 O27
    `--*F. belcheri (Hinds 1844) RA75 [=Murex belcheri RA75, Chorus belcheri O27, M. (Hemifusus) belcheri C64]
  Brocchitas Finlay 1927 DK08
    `--*B. exilis (Tate 1888) DK08 (see below for synonymy)
  Marchia Jousseaume 1880 BW09, RA75
    |--‘Murex’ elongata Lightfoot 1786 [incl. Murex clavus Kiener 1843, *Marchia clava] RA75
    `--M. martinetana (Röding 1798) BW09
  Muricodrupa Iredale 1918 BC01, RA75
    |--‘Murex’ funiculus Wood 1828 [incl. Purpura fenestrata Blainville 1832, *Muricodrupa fenestrata] RA75
    |--M. jacobsoni Emerson & D’Attilio 1981 BC01
    `--M. stellaris (Hombron & Jacquinot 1853) BW09
  Pascula Dall 1908 BW09, RA75
    |--*P. citrica (Dall 1908) [=Trophon (*Pascula) citricus] RA75
    `--P. ochrostoma (Blainville 1832) BW09
  Pseudosalpinx Olsson, Harbison et al. 1953 RA75
    `--*P. floridana (Conrad 1837) RA75 [=Urosalpinx floridana O27; incl. Murex ostrearum Conrad 1846 RA75]
  Rugotyphis Vella 1961 RA75
    `--*R. francescae (Finlay 1924) RA75 [=Typhis francescae F27a]
  Pagodula Monterosato 1884 MG-H11, RA75 [Pagodulinae]
    |--*P. echinata (Kiener 1840) [=Fusus echinatus] BR17
    |--P. carduelis (Watson 1886) MG-H11
    `--P. vaginata (Cristofori & Jan 1832) [=Murex vaginata] RA75
  Bizetiella Radwin & D’Attilio 1972 BC01, RA75
    |--*B. carmen (Lowe 1935) [=Tritonalia carmen] RA75
    `--B. shaskyi Radwin & D’Attilio 1972 BC01
  Calotrophon Hertlein & Strong 1951 BC01, RA75
    |--‘Tritonalia’ turrita Dall 1919 [incl. *Calotrophon bristolae Hertlein & Strong 1951] RA75
    `--C. andrewsi Vokes 1976 BC01
  Distichotyphis Keen & Campbell 1964 BC01
    `--*D. vemae Keen & Campbell 1964 BC01
  Haustellotyphis Jousseaume 1880 BC01, RA75
    |--*H. cumingi (Broderip 1833) [=Typhis cumingi] RA75
    `--H. wendita Hertz 1995 BC01
  Ocinebrina Jousseaum 1880 BC01, RA75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--O. aciculata (Lamarck 1822) (see below for synonymy) RA75
    `--O. adansoni Kosuge & Fernandes 1989 BC01
  Poirieria BC01
  Pterotyphis Jousseaume 1880 BC01, RA75 [=Perotyphis RA75]
    `--*P. pinnatus (Broderip 1833) [=Typhis pinnatus] RA75
  Daphnellopsis Schepman 1913 BK11, P66
    |--*D. lamellosa Schepman 1913 P66
    `--D. murex Hedley 1922 P66
  Concepcionella Bandel & Stinnesbeck 2000 BD12
    `--*C. bonillana Bandel & Stinnesbeck 2000 BD12
  Pterymarchia tripterus (Born 1778) BD12
  Haustrum Perry 1811 BR05 [=Lepsia Hutton 1884 RA75; Haustrinae BR05]
    |--*H. zelandicum Perry 1811 BR17
    |--H. dentex Perry 1811 C64
    |--H. haustorium (Gmelin 1791) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--H. pictum Perry 1811 C64
  Tripterotyphis Pilsbry & Lowe 1932 [Tripterotyphinae] BR05
    |--*T. lowei (Pilsbry 1931) RA75 [=Typhis lowei RA75, Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) lowei PP78]
    |--T. arcana (DuShane 1969) [=Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) arcana] BC01
    `--T. fayae (Keen & Campbell 1964) [=Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) fayae] BC01
  Typhis Montfort 1810 [Typhinae] BR05
    |  i. s.: T. maccoyi [incl. T. hebetatus] F27a
    |         T. philippensis Watson 1886 WG71
    |         T. yatesi Crosse 1865 WG71
    |         T. zealandica Hutton 1873 F27a
    |--*T. (Typhis) tubifer (Bruguière 1792) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    `--T. (Typhina Jousseaume 1880) BC01
         |--T. (*T.) belcheri Broderip 1833 RA75
         `--T. (T.) riosi (Bertsch & D’Attilio 1980) [=Typhina riosi] BC01
  Muricopsinae DM88
    |--Muricopsis BR05
    |--Favartia DM88
    |--Murexiella BC01
    `--Murexsul Iredale 1915 BC01
         |--*M. octogonus (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) [=Murex octogonus] RA75
         |--M. brazieri Angas 1877 WG71
         |--M. cuvierensis Finlay 1927 F27b
         |--M. elatensis (Emerson & D’Attilio 1979) (see below for synonymy) BC01
         |--M. fimbriatus Lamarck 1822 WG71
         |--M. jacquelinae Emerson & D’Attilio 1969 BC01
         |--M. mariae Finlay 1930 P61
         |--M. prionotus (Tate 1888) DK08
         `--M. umbilicatus (Tenison Woods 1875) WG71 [=Trophon umbilicatus F27a]
  ‘Nassarina’ grayi R77
  Attiliosa Emerson 1968 PP78, RA75
    |-*A. incompta (Berry 1960) [=Coralliophila incompta] RA75
    |--A. aldridgei (Usticke 1969) [=Vasum aldridgei] BC01
    `--A. carmen (Lowe 1935) PP78
  Typhinellus Jousseaume 1880 P61
    |--*T. sowerbii (Broderip 1833) [=Typhis sowerbii, Typhis sowerbiyi (l. c.)] RA75
    `--T. pauperis (Mestayer 1916) [=Typhis (Typhinellus) pauperis] P61
  Emozamia Iredale 1929 RA75
    `--*E. licinus (Hedley & Petterd 1906) [=Murex licinus] RA75
  Chathamidea Dell 1956 P61
    `--*C. expeditionis Dell 1956 RA75
  Maculotriton BW09
    |--*M. bracteatus (Hinds 1844) [=Triton bracteata] RA75
    |--M. bicolor M54
    `--M. serriale (Deshayes 1830) BD12
  Shaskyus Burch & Campbell 1963 V77, RA75
    `--*S. festivus (Hinds 1844) RA75 [=Murex (Triremis) festivus RA75, O27b]
  Coralliophilinae BR17
  Aspella Mörch 1877 BR05 [Aspellinae BR17]
    |--*A. anceps (Lamarck 1822) [=Ranella anceps] RA75
    `--A. undata Hedley 1907 [=Clavus undatus] L54
  Maxwellia Bailey 1950 JB12, RA75
    |--*M. gemma (Sowerby 1879) RA75 [=Murex gemma RA75, M. (Triremis) gemma O27]
    `--M. angermeyerae (Emerson & D’Attilio 1965) [=Aspella (Favartia) angermeyerae] BC01
  Neorapana Cooke 1918 JB12, RA75
    `--*N. muricata (Broderip 1832) [=Purpura muricata] RA75
  Scalaspira Conrad 1862 P12, RA75
    `--*S. strumosa (Conrad 1862) [=Fusus strumosa] RA75
  Lirosoma Conrad 1862 P12
  Chesatrophon Petuch 1988 P12
  Chesathais Petuch 1988 P12
    `--C. lindae Petuch 1988 P12
  Trisecphora patuxentia (Petuch 1988) P12
  Mariasalpinx Petuch 1988 P12
  Patuxentrophon Petuch 1992 P12
  Stephanosalpinx Petuch 1988 P12
    `--S. candelabra Petuch 1988 P12
  Laevityphis Cossmann 1903 P12, RA75
    |--‘Typhis’ muticus Sowerby 1834 [incl. T. coronarius Deshayes 1865, *Laevityphis coronarius] RA75
    `--L. acuticosta (Conrad 1830) P12
  Ecphorosycon kalyx Petuch 1988 P12
  Phyllonotus Swainson 1833 BC01, RA75
    |--P. margaritensis (Abbott 1958) B59 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. bicolor C64
    |--P. brassica C64
    |--P. eversoni D’Attilio, Myers & Shasky 1987 BC01
    |--P. nigritus C64
    |--P. oculatus (Reeve 1845) [=Chicoreus (Phyllonotus) oculatus] V90
    |--P. pomum (Gmelin 1791) [=Chicoreus (Phyllonotus) pomum] V90
    `--P. princeps C64

Bedeva paivae (Crosse 1864) HJ08 [=Trophon paivae RA75, T. (Kalydon) paivae F27a, Xymene paivae F27a; incl. Trophon hanleyi Angas 1867 RA75, *Bedeva hanleyi RA75, Xymene quirindus Iredale 1915 F27a]

*Boreotrophon clathrata (Linné 1767) RA75 [=Murex clathrata RA75, Tritonium (Trophon) clathratum C64, Trophon clathratus N79; incl. Tro. costatum J64b, Tritonium gunneri Lovén 1846 N79, Fusus gunneri C64, Trophon clathratus var. gunneri N79, F. peruvianus J64b, Murex rumphius J64b, F. scalariformis J64b, Trophon scalariformis J64a]

Brocchitas exilis (Tate 1888) DK08 [=Fasciolaria exilis F27c, Fusus exilis nec Menke 1843 nec Philippi 1843 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.) F27c, Latirofusus exilis F27c, Streptochetus exilis F27c, S. adelomorphus Cossmann 1901 F27c]

‘Buccinum’ contractum Reeve 1846 RA75 [=Trophon contractus H09; incl. *Ergalatax recurrens Iredale 1931 RA75]

Ceratostoma Hermannsen 1846 non Fr. 1818 (ICBN) AV03, RA75 [=Cerastoma Conrad 1837 non Latreille 1802 RA75, Spinostoma Coen 1943 RA75]

Ceratostoma foliatum (Martyn 1784) AV03, O27 [=Purpura foliata O27, Murex foliatus O27; incl. M. Purpura alata Chemnitz 1780–1795 (non-binomial) C64, Cerostoma monodon C64, M. phyllopterus C64, M. tripterus C64]

*Drupella ochrostoma (Blainville 1832) RA75 [=Drupa (*Drupella) ochrostoma RA75, Purpura ochrostoma H09, Sistrum ochrostoma C64]

Hadriania craticuloides Vokes 1964 [incl. Murex craticulatus Brocchi 1814 non Linnaeus 1758, *Hadriania craticulata] RA75

Haustellum messorius (Sowerby 1841) V90 [=Murex messorius V90; incl. M. messorius var. gustaviensis Usticke 1969 BC01]

Haustrum haustorium (Gmelin 1791) P61 [=Buccinum haustorium RA75; incl. B. haustrum Martyn 1788 (nom. inv.) RA75, Haustrum haustrum RA75, *Lepsia haustrum RA75, Thais haustrum F27a]

Murexsul elatensis (Emerson & D’Attilio 1979) [=Favartia elatensis, Muricopsis (Murexsul) elatensis] BC01

*Muricanthus radix (Gmelin 1791) RA75 [=Murex radix RA75, *Centronotus radix RA75; incl. Murex melanomathos C64]

Ocinebrina Jousseaum 1880 BC01, RA75 [incl. Corallinia Buzquoy & Dautzenberg in Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus 1882 RA75]

Ocinebrina aciculata (Lamarck 1822) [=Murex aciculatus, *Corallinia aciculata; incl. Fusus corallinus Scacchi 1836, *Ocinebrina corallina] RA75

*Paratrophon cheesemani (Hutton 1882) RA75 [=Polytropa cheesemani RA75, Trophon (Xanthochorus) cheesemani F27a]

Paratrophon stangeri (Gray 1843) [=Trophon rugosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) (preoc.), Fusus stangeri, Trophon (Trophon) stangeri; incl. Polytropa retiaria Hutton 1878] F27a

Phyllonotus margaritensis (Abbott 1958) B59 [=Murex (Phyllonotus) margaritensis B59, M. imperialis Swainson 1831 non Fischer de Waldheim 1807 RA75, *Phyllonotus imperialis RA75]

*Typhis (Typhis) tubifer (Bruguière 1792) BR17 [=Purpura tubifer BR17, Murex tubifer RA75, Poropteron tubifer RA75]

Vitularia miliaris (Gmelin 1791) WG71 [=Murex miliaris RA75; incl. *Vitularia tuberculata Swainson 1840 RA75, M. vitulina Lamarck 1816 RA75, *Vitulina vitulina RA75]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AV03] Amano, K., & G. J. Vermeij. 2003. Evolutionary adaptation and geographic spread of the Cenozoic buccinid genus Lirabuccinum in the North Pacific. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 863–872.

[B59] Baker, B. B. 1959. Publications received: The marine mollusks of Grand Cayman Island, British West Indies. By R. Tucker Abbott. Nautilus 72 (4): 147–148.

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