Gracilispira novaezelandiae, copyright Natural History Museum Rotterdam.

Belongs within: Neogastropoda.
Contains: Amalda, Ancilla, Olivella, Oliva.

The Olivoidea, olives, are a group of burrowing, predatory gastropods found in warm waters. They commonly possess a glossy, bullet-shaped shell and a large, muscular head and foot with lateral parapodia embracing the shell. The basal Pseudolividae, however, have ovoid to fusiform shells covered by periostracum and lack foot parapodia. The genus Benthobia is similar to Pseudolividae (differing in having a multispiral protoconch) but is placed by molecular analysis closer to other Olivoidea. True olives of the subfamily Olivinae have highly glossy, solid shells with a cylindrical shape, low spire, and a long narrow aperture with several columellar plaits, and without an operculum. Members of the Ancillariidae have a thinner, less glossy shell, usually with a wider aperture and higher spire, and sometimes with a small operculum (Wilson & Gillett 1971). Vanpalmeria is a Palaeocene genus with a biconic shell covered by several layers of feltlike calcite.

Olivoidea [Olivelloidei]
    |  i. s.: Belloliva Peile 1922 [Bellolividae] BR17
    |           `--*B. brazieri (Angas 1877) [=Olivella brazieri] BR17
    |         Ancillina sumatrana FP15
    |--Pseudolividae FP15
    |    |--Sulcobuccinum Orbigny 1850 BD12
    |    |--Eoancilla acutula Stephenson 1941 [=Ancilla acutula] BD12
    |    |--Triumphis JB12
    |    |--Popenoeum subcostatum (Stoliczka 1868) TTE93
    |    |--Fulgerca Stephenson 1941 BD12
    |    |    `--*F. venusta Stephenson 1941 BD12
    |    |--Ptychosyca Gabb 1877 BD12
    |    |    `--*P. inornata Gabb 1876 BD12
    |    |--Ptychoris Gabb 1877 BD12
    |    |    `--*P. purpuriformis (Forbes 1846) [=Voluta purpuriformis] BD12
    |    |--Parafusus Wade 1918 [incl. Wadia Cossmann 1920] BD12
    |    |    `--*P. callilateris (Wade 1917) [=Hyllus callilateris] BD12
    |    |--Austrosphaera Camacho 1949 [incl. Seymourosphaera Oleinik & Zinsmeister 1996] BD12
    |    |    `--*A. difficilis (Orbigny 1842) BD12
    |    |--Pseudoliva Swainson 1840 [Pseudolivinae] BD12
    |    |    `--*P. plumbea (Dillwyn 1817) [=Buccinum plumbeum] BR17
    |    |--Fulmentum FP15
    |    |    |--F. ancilla (Hanley 1859) S11
    |    |    `--F. sepimentum (Rang 1832) FP15
    |    `--Zemira Adams & Adams 1853 [Zemiridae] BR05
    |         |--*Z. australis (Sowerby 1833) [=Eburna australis] BR17
    |         `--Z. bodalla Garrard 1966 WG71
    `--+--+--Benthobia Dall 1889 FP15, PH90 [Benthobiidae BR17]
       |  |    |--*B. tryonii Dall 1889 PH90
       |  |    |--B. atafona Simone 2003 S11
       |  |    |--B. complexirhina Simone 2003 S11
       |  |    |--B. sima Simone 2003 S11
       |  |    `--B. tornatilis Simone 2003 S11
       |  `--Ancillariidae [Ancillariinae, Ancillarinae, Ancillidae, Ancillinae] BR17
       |       |--Amalda FP15
       |       |--Ancilla BR17
       |       `--Gracilispira Olson 1956 P61
       |            |--*G. novaezelandiae (Sowerby 1859) P61 (see below for synonymy)
       |            |    |--G. n. novaezelandiae P61
       |            |    |--G. n. benthicola (Dell 1956) [=Baryspira (Gracilispira) novaezelandiae benthicola] P61
       |            |    `--G. n. crystallina (Brookes 1926) P61 (see below for synonymy)
       |            |--G. albanyensis (Ninomiya 1987) [=Amalda (Gracilispira) albanyensis] BC01
       |            `--G. ligata (Tate 1889) [=Ancillaria ligata] DK08
       `--Olividae [Fissipedia, Olivaria, Schizopoda] ZLK11
            |  i. s.: Ancillista Iredale 1936 WG71
            |           |--A. cingulata (Sowerby 1830) MG-H11
            |           `--A. velesiana Iredale 1936 WG71
            |         Gemmoliva Iredale 1924 DK08
            |           `--G. adelaidae (Tate 1889) [=Oliva adelaidae] DK08
            |         Tanimasanoria japonica (Kase 1990) TTE93
            |         Ramola Gray 1858 C64
            |           `--*R. volutella [=Oliva volutella; incl. O. razamola] C64
            |         Anazola Gray 1858 C64
            |         Olivina Gray 1858 C64
            |           |--O. lineolata C64
            |           `--O. semisulcata C64
            |         Scaphula Gray 1858 C64
            |           `--*S. auricularia [=Olivancilla auricularia] C64
            |--Olivella BR17
            |--Vanpalmeria Adegoke 1977 [Vanpalmeriidae, Vanpalmeriinae] BR05
            |    `--*V. africana Adegoke 1977 BR17
            |--Calyptoliva Kantor & Bouchet 2007 [Calyptolividae, Calyptolivinae] BR17
            |    `--*C. bolis Kantor & Bouchet 2007 BR17
            |--Agaronia Gray 1839 BR05 [Agaroniinae BR17]
            |    |--*A. hiatula (Gmelin 1791) [=Voluta hiatula] BR17
            |    |--A. acuminata (Lamarck 1811) [incl. A. annotata Marrat 1871] BB64
            |    |--A. gibbosa (Born 1778) [incl. A. nebulosa Lamarck 1811] BB64
            |    |--A. lanei Lange de Morretes 1938 BB64
            |    |--A. langei Zanardini 1960 BB64
            |    |--A. lutraria (Röding 1798) [incl. A. subulata (Lamarck 1811)] BB64
            |    |--A. murrha Berry 1953 BB64
            |    |--A. testacea (Lamarck 1811) BB64
            |    `--A. travassosi Lange de Morretes 1938 BB64
            |--Olivinae BR05
            |    |--‘Dactylus’ Adams & Adams 1853 non Schumacher 1817 [Dactylidae, Dactylinae] BR05
            |    `--Oliva FP15
            `--Olivancillaria d’Orbigny 1841 [Olivancillariidae, Olivancillariinae] BR17
                 |--*O. brasiliana (Lamarck 1811) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
                 |--O. auricularia (Lamarck 1811) [=Agaronia (Olivancillaria) auricularia] BB64
                 |--O. contortuplicata (Reeve 1850) [=Agaronia (Olivancillaria) contortuplicata] BB64
                 |--O. deshayesiana K64
                 |--O. gibbosa F12
                 |--O. teaguei Klappenbach 1964 K64
                 `--O. urceus (Röding 1798) S11 [=Porphyria urceus BB64, Agaronia (Olivancillaria) urceus BB64]

*Gracilispira novaezelandiae (Sowerby 1859) P61 [=Ancillaria novaezelandiae P61, Amalda novaezelandiae HS01, Ancilla novaezelandiae F27, Baryspira (Alocospira) novaezelandiae F27]

Gracilispira novaezelandiae crystallina (Brookes 1926) P61 [=Ancilla crystallina F27, B. (Pinguispira) crystallina F27]

*Olivancillaria brasiliana (Lamarck 1811) BR17 [=Oliva brasiliana BR17; incl. Oliva brasiliensis Chemnitz 1788 BB64, Voluta pinguis BB64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BB64] Burch, J. Q., & R. L. Burch. 1964. The genus Agaronia J. E. Gray, 1839. Nautilus 77 (4): 110–112, pls 6–7.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[FP15] Fedosov, A., N. Puillandre, Y. Kantor & P. Bouchet. 2015. Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 336–359.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F12] Frýda, J. 2012. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic gastropods inferred from their ontogeny. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 395–435. Springer.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[K64] Klappenbach, M. A. 1964. A new species of Olivancillaria from Uruguay and Brazil. Nautilus 77 (4): 132–134.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus 103 (Suppl. 1): 1–69.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Last updated: 16 September 2021.

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